Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Disasters and Disaster Management Presented By Roman Saini
Course Structure B. DM in India 1 Challenges in DM 2. DM Act 2005,NDMA C. Disaster Management 1. DM Framework 2. Phases of DM 3. Pre-Disaster A. Introduction 1. Previous Year Questions Trend Introduction to Disaster Phenomena Guidelines 2010 DM Institutes in India-NDMA,NDRF,NIDM National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM) National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP), 2016 Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 Disasters in India during the year 2017 2. 3. 4. 5. management- Phase 1 Emergency Response System-Phase 2 Recovery-Relief & Rehabilitation-Phase 3 India 4. 3. Disaster in i.Earthquakes ii. Cyclone li. I sunam v.Floods v.Droughts vi.Landslide 6. Community Based DM 7. Use of Science & 6. Technology in DM vii.Avalanches viii. Industrial Disaster ix.Epidemic 7.
Role of NDMA in Prevention and Mitigation of Disasters Mitigation, an integral component of preparedness, is one of the most important ways of preparing for disasters. Disaster mitigation is any action taken to eliminate or minimize the impact of a disaster on people. erty and environment. Sinc itigation takes many forms, all stakeholders in disaster management must get engaged with disaster impact minimization processes The NDMA has initiated the steps for launching national level mitigation projects for the management of earthquakes, cyclones, floods, droughts and landslides. It strives for strengthening the disaster communication network up to the last mile connectivity, and for setting up national disaster mitigation reserves The work on risk assessment and vulnerability analysis, micro-zonation and hazard-zonation mapping, r groups. The most important activities in strengthening disaster preparedness include the preparation of Guidelines, the improvement in risk assessment, vulnerability analysis and early warning systems, capacity building, public awareness, mock drills, etc.
Following are some initiatives taken by NDMA time to time for disaster mitigation and prevention: 1. National Earthquake Risk Mitigation Project (NERMP) 2. National Disaster Information and Communication Network (NDICN) 3. National School Safety Pilot Project (NSSPP) 4. National Landslide Risk Mitigation Project (NLRMP) 5. National Flood Risk Mitigation Project (NFRMP) 6. National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP)
World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction Yokohama, 1994 At the global level, there has been considerable concern over natural disasters. Even as substantial scientific and material progress is made, the loss of lives and property due to disasters has not decreased. In fact, the human toll and economic losses have mounted. It was in this background that the United Nations General Assembly, in 1989, declared the decade 1990-2000 as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction with the objective to reduce loss of lives and property and restrict socio-economic damage through concerted international action, especially in developing countries. The 'Yokahama Declaration' of 1994, enunciated during the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction signaled a radical shift in disaster management: The earlier practice of disaster management being regarded as the most efficient manner of responding to acute emergencies was replaced by a 'holistic' approach embracing all aspects of disaster management that is response, prevention, mitigation and preparedness. The 'Declaration' elucidates how prevention and mitigation are the keys to minimize, if not prevent, distress caused by natural disasters and thus form the bedrock of integrated disaster management.
Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World- Risk assessment is a required step for the adoption of adequate and successful disaster reduction policies and measures, Disaster prevention and preparedness are of primary importance in reducing the need for disaster relief. Disaster prevention and preparedness should be considered integral aspects of development policy and planning at national, regional, bilateral, multilateral and international levels The development and strengthening of capacities to prevent, reduce and mitigate disasters is a top priority area to be addressed so as to provide a strong basis for follow-up activities to IDNDR. Early warnings of impending disasters and their effective dissemination are key factors to successful disaster prevention and preparedness. Preventive measures are most effective when they involve participation at all levels from the local community through the national government to the regional and international level. vulnerability can be reduced by the application of proper design and patterns of development focused on target groups by appropriate education and training of the whole community
The international community accepts the need to share the necessary technology to prevent, reduce and mitigate disaster. Environmental protection as a component of sustainable development consistent with poverty alleviation is imperative in the prevention and mitigation of natural disasters. Each country bears the primary responsibility for protecting its people, infrastructure, and other national assets from the impact of natural disasters. The international community should demonstrate strong political determination required to make efficient use of existing resources, including financial, scientific and technological means, in the field of natural disaster reduction, bearing in mind the needs of the developing countries, particularly the least developed countries
4. Management During Disaster Emergency Response System During a major crisis, the normal emergency response system usually gets overwhelmed and mobilization of all resources of community, government, local bodies (municipalities and panchayats), NGOs and private sector becomes necessary. The problem gets further compounded because of the following At the onset of any crisis the picture is often unclear and the situation usually gets chaotic, making organized relief and rescue difficult. The situation is further complicated in case disaster hits during night time. 1. 2. The resources available are limited while the demand is very high. It becomes difficult to prioritise the allocation of the available resources, as there is pressing demand from all quarters for deployment of resources. 3. The first reaction is to act spontaneously without due planning and thinking 4. Collapse of communication and transportation networks further worsens the situation. Thus providing initial response when the onset and impact are sudden, is extremely challenging and very vital. There should be a strong emergency response system.
The district administration headed by the Collector provides government's first organized response to any crisis. This is not to belittle the efforts of other first responders, the community, NGOs, and the nearest government functionaries like the policemen, firemen, the village officer and the local government functionaries At the first sign of any crisis the trigger mechanism should spontaneously set the emergency quick response mechanism into action, without formal orders from anywhere as per the standard operating procedures. In large cities, there is blurring of responsibilities between the agencies of the state government and those of local bodies. In crisis situations, the Emergency Response Plan should define the trigger point in unambiguous terms so that there is no delay on the part of the role players to initiate action as laid down in the plan. The Emergency Response Plan should also identify resources, including human resources, logistics, specialized equipments and the way to put them into action.
Rescue and Relief The emergency response phase can be divided into two distinct categories of activities. The immediate response to any disaster should be launching of rescue operations which have the The rescue operations have to be carried over a short period of time as the window of opportunity is The first is rescue and the second is relief. primary aim of saving human lives and thereafter animal lives and property. usually small ranging from a few hours to a few days. Mobilization of local efforts, use of volunteers, civil defence and other personnel, police and fire forces and armed forces, is important depending upon the intensity of the disaster. As the rescue operations are on, the phase for providing relief starts. Providing relief entails making immediate arrangements to ensure that the basic minimum necessities of life like food, clothing, shelter, security, and basic health and sanitation facilities are made available. The relief phase may last for a few weeks, till the affected families are properly rehabilitated. NGOs can play a particularly important role during the relief phase.