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APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA OPPOSITION TO APARTHEID INSIDE SOUTH AFRICA (2) BY NANDINI MAHARAJ
OPPOSITION TO APARTHEID INSIDE SOUTH AFRICA Later the ANC organised other protest including 1957 bus boycott: instead of paying a fare increase on the bus route from their township to Johannesburg ten mile, away, thousands of Africans walked to work and back for three month until fares were reduced Protest, reached a climax in 1960 when a huge demonstration took place against the pass laws at Sharpevilile, an African township near Johannesburg Police fired on the crowd, killing 67 Africans and wounding many more. After this 15 000 Africans were arrested and hundred of people were beaten by police. - This was an important turning point in the campaign: until then most or the protest had been non-violent; but this brutal treatment
by the authorities convinced many black leaders that violence could only be met with violence. . A small action group of the ANC, known as Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation), or MK, was launched; Nelson Mandela was a prominent member. They organized a campaign of sabotaging strategic targets. - in 1961 there was spate of bomb attacks in Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth and Durban. But the police soon clamped down, arresting most of the blach leaders, including Mandela, who was sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben island. Chief Luthuli still persevered with non-violent protests, and after publishing his moving autobiography Let My People Go, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
He was killed in 1967, the authorities claiming that he had deliberately stepped in front of a train. Discontent and protest increased again in the 1970s because the wage of Africans failed to keep pace with inflation. In 1976, when the Transvaal authority announced that Afrikaans (the language spoken by whites of Dutch descent) was to be used in black African school, massive demonstrations took place at Soweto, a black town hip near Johannesburg. Although there were many children and young people in the crowd, police opened fire, killing at least 200 black Africans. This time the protest did not die down; they spread over the whole country Again government responded with brutality: over the next six months a further 500 Africans were killed; among the victims was
Steve Biko a young African leader who had been urging people to be proud of their blackness. - He was beaten to death by police in 1976.
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