ARCHITECTURE IN MEDIEVAL INDIA INDO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
INTRODUCTION e With the Arab conquest of Sind in 712 A.D., the arrival of the lslamic rulers to the western frontiers of India had started, By 12th century A.D., the throne of Delhi had been occupied by an Islamic ruler, which marked the onset of the medieval period of Indian history. e In the subsequent years, Indian architecture underwent a massive change. New elements, such as calligraphy, ornamentation using inlay work, etc. were introduced to reflect the tastes and preferences of the new rulers. .However, the local architects retained certain flavours of the local architectural traditions as well.Thus, in the architecture of this following period, we see a confluence of Persian style with the Indian tyle. Hence, it is known as Indo-lslamic architecture or Indo- Saracenic architecture.
Some of the features of Indo-Islamic architecture are given as follows: The use of arch and domes gained prominence during this period. It was known as arcuade' style of architecture and replaced the traditional Trabeat style of architecture. The Islamic rulers introduced the use of minars around the mosques and the mausoleums. . Mortar was used as a cementing agent in their constructions. The Indo-Islamic architecture avoided the use of human and animal figures. While the Hindu architecture had become too congested, the Indo-lslamic architecture introduced spaciousness, massiveness and breadth to it.
While the previous structures used sculptures as means of decoration, the Indo-lslamic architecture used calligraphy as means of decoration. e Arabesque method was also used for decoration.Arabesque meant the use of geometrical vegetal ornamentation and was characterized by a continuous stem which split regularly, producing a series of counterpoised, leafy, secondary stems.The secondary stems, in turn, split again or returned to merge with the main stem creating a decorative pattern. e The architecture of this period heavily used the principles of geometry - from decorative pattern to imbibing a sense of symmetry
Arabesque method 08
The buildings had intricate jaali works, which signifies the importance of light in Islamic religion. An important feature of the architecture during this period was the use of water in the premises of the constructions
Water was used primarily for three purposes: e Religious purpose e Cooling the premises Decorative Durpose The Islamic rulers introduced the Charbagh style of gardening, in which a square block was divided into four adjacent identical gardens
e The architectures of these times also used the pietra-dura technique for the inlay of precious stones and gems into the stone walls Another unique feature was the use of foreshortening technique in the buildings, such that the inscriptions appear to be closer than it really is.
Difference between Arcuade Style and Trabeat Style Basis Trabeat style Arcuade style Characterised by the use of lintels Characterised by the use of arches and domes Entrance Top The use of shikhara on top of the temples. Ihey were generally conical or curvilinear. Minars were absent. The use of domes on top of the mosques. Domes were generally hemispherical. Minars were present on the four corners of the mosques Minar Building material Stone was the primary component of all constructions Brick, lime plaster and mortar started being used for constructions.
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