ARCHITECTURE IN MEDIEVAL INDIA INDO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
Architecture during Delhi Sultanate Period During the period of Delhi Sultanate, i.e. 1206-1526 A.D architecture can be categorized into two broad categories: I.Imperial Style: Patronized by the rulers of the Delhi. 2. Provincial Style: Patronized by local rulers and chiefs. Imperial Style The Imperial style of architecture flourished from 1191 to 1557 A.D. under the various dynasties that ruled during this period. Each ruler imparted certain flavors of his own, but the broad stylization remained the same.
SLAVE DYNASTY The Slave dynasty or the llbari dynasty remained in power from 1206 to 1290 A.D. During that period, the style of architecture came to be known as the Mameluke style of architecture. During this period, most of the constructions were remodellings of the existing Hindu structures.They also started the erection of a number of monuments, Qutub Minar being a prime example. It is a 5-storey structure initiated by Qutb-ud-din Aibak, who did only the ground floor.The next three storeys were completed by lltutmish and the 5th storey was done by Feroze Shah Tughlaq Example: Quwat-ul-Islam mosque in the Qutub Minar Premises, which was converted from a Jain temple, Arhai-din-ka-Jhopra , etc.
Khilji dynasty They ruled from 1290 A.D. to 1320 A.D. and established the Seljulk style of architecture. The constructions of this period are marked by the use of red sandstone. e Also, the prominence of Arcuade style began from this period Mortar began to be used prominently in all the constructions as a cementing agent Example: Alai Darwaza by Ala-ud-din Khilji, Siri fort, etc.
Tughlaq dynasty . It was the crisis period for architecture during the Delhi Sultanate period. However, some construction works were still undertaken, which used grey sandstone. During this period, the focus was more on strength of the building and so, there was less emphasis on decoration.The constructions combined both arch and lintel method of entrance design e They also introduced a style of construction known as "batter" which was characterized by sloping walls to give more strength to the building. Example: Cities of Tughlaqabaad, Jahaanpanah and Firozabad. Example: Cities of Tughlaqabaad, Jahaanpanah and Firozabacd
Lodi dynasty Under the Lodi dynasty, architecture continued to take a back seat. Only tombs were commissioned during this period. However, one important feature of architecture during this period was the introduction of double domes. It consisted of a hollow dome inside the top dome. The reasons for the use of double domes were: To give strength to the structure, and To lower the inner height of the dome. The tombs built during this phase were hard and bare, without any lavish decorations.They were built in octagonal shapes, with a diameter of roughly 15 meters. Example: Lodi gardens, the city of Agra was established by Sikandar Lodi, etc.
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