NATIONAL TALENT SEARCH EXAMINATION (NTSE) SOCIAL SCIENCE (HISTORY) (INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION) BY: SUDESHNA MOHAPATRA
The Second Industrial Revolution There was evidence for a "new" Industrial Revolution in the late 19th and 20th centuries The Second Industrial Revolution was another great leap forward in technology and society New innovations in steel production, petroleum and electricity led to the introduction of public automobiles and airplanes
Many of the changes that occurred during this period had to do with new products simply replacing old ones For instance, during this time, steel began to replace iron. Steel was being utilized for construction projects, industrial machines, railroads, ships and many other items. Steel production made it possible for rail lines to be built at competitive costs, which further spread transportation
Electrical Inventions and Improvements The introduction of public electricity led to many inventions. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan finally perfected the design of the light bulb in 1879. Contrary to popular myth, Edison did not invent the light bulb. In fact, less efficient light bulbs had been around decades earlier. So why is Edison given credit for this invention? His design was the first one that was practical for home use.
Graham Bell. Thomas Edison
CHEMICAL DEVELOPMENTS In chemistry, Germans took the lead In 1840 Justus von Liebig, a chemistryprofessor at Giessen, published his Organic Chemistry in Its Applications to Agriculture and Physiology, which explained the importance of fertilizers and advocated the application of chemicals in agriculture.
. German chemists, such as Friedrich W hler Robert Bunsen, Leopold Gmelin, August von Hofmann, and Friedrich Kekul von Stradonitz, jointly created modern organic chemistry, without which the chemical industry of the second half of the nineteenth century would not have been possible . Despite German dominance, it was an Englishman, William Perkin, who by sheer luck made the first major discovery in what was to become the modern chemical industry
Chemistry also began its road toward the suppl of new artificial materials Charles Goodyear, invented in 1839 the vulcanization process of rubber. . Disinfectants and antiseptics, particularly phenol and bromines were produced in large quantities. One of the most remarkable inventions was the acetyl compound of salicylic acid
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