NATIONAL TALENT SEARCH EXAMINATION (NTSE) SOCIAL SCIENCE (HISTORY) (INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION) BY: SUDESHNA MOHAPATRA
PACE OF INDUSTRIALISATION IN BRITAIN. Cotton and metals were the most dynamic industries in Britain During the first phase of industrialization (upto 1840s), cotton was the leading sector The iron and steel industries grew rapidly with the expansion of railways. The railways expanded in England from the 1840s and in the colonies from 1860s
. At the end of the nineteenth century, less than 20% of total workforce was employed in technologically advanced industrial sectors. This shows that the traditional industry could not be displaced by the nevw industries .The cotton or metal industries could not set the change of pace in the traditional industries. But the traditional industries experienced many changes which were brought by small and apparently ordinary innovations.
HAND LABOUR AND STEAM POWER. During this period, there was no shortage of human labour. . As a result, the merchants and industrialists preferred to manage with human labour rather than investing in costly machines.
Machine-made goods were standardized and could not match the high quality finish of hand-made goods. The people from the upper classes preferred things produced by hand. . The situation was different in nineteenth century America. There was shortage of labour in America and hence mechanization was the only way out in that part of the world
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