NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-18) Presented By- Shiv Kumcr
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Why Swadeshi Movement fizzled out by 1908 Severe government repression. Lack of effective organisation and a disciplined focus. With arrest/deportation of all leaders, the movement left leaderless. Split in nationalist ranks. Narrow social base. Achievements "A leap forward" because hitherto untouched sections participated, major trends of later movement emerged; richness of the movement extended to culture, science and literature; people educated in bolder form of politics; colonial hegemony undermined
Major Cause of Moderate-Extremist Split at Surat (1907) Moderates wanted to restrict the Boycott Movement to Bengal and to a boycott of foreign cloth and liquor. Extremists wanted to take the movement to all parts of the country and include within its ambit all forms of association with the government through a boycott of schools, colleges, law courts, legislative councils, government service, municipalities, etc.
Government Acts for Repression of Swadeshi Movement .Seditious Meetings Act (1907) Criminal Law (Amendment) Act (1908) Indian Newspapers (Incitement to Offences) Act (1908) Explosive Substances Act (1908) Indian Press Act (1910) Morley-Minto Reforms-1909 In October 1906, a group of Muslim elites called the Simla Deputation, led by the Agha Khan,met Lord Minto and demanded separate electorates for the Muslims Gopal Krishna Gokhale also went to England to meet the Secretary of State for India, John Morley, to put Congress demands of self- governing system similar to that in the other British colonies
They worked out a set of measures that came to be known as the Morley Minto (or Minto-Morley) Reforms that translated into the Indian Councils Act of 1909 Number of elected members in Imperial and Provincial Legislative Councils increased-elected non-officials still in minority. Non-officials to be elected indirectly-thus elections introduced for the first time. Separate electorates introduced for Muslims. Legislatures could pass resolutions, ask questions and supplementaries, vote separate items of the budget. One Indian to be on viceroy's executive council
Evaluation Lord Morley made it clear that colonial self-government (as demanded by the Congress) was not suitable for India, and he was against the introduction of parliamentary or responsible government in India. Aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks and at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims to the government's side. No responsibility entrusted to legislators-this resulted in thoughtless criticism sometimes System of election was too indirect.