NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-18) Presented By- Shiv Kumcr
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First World War and Nationalist Response .In the First World War (1914-1919), Britain allied with France, Russia, USA, Italy and Japan against Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey. The nationalist response to British participation in the First World War was three-fold (i) the Moderates supported the empire in the war as a matter of duty; () the Extremists, including Tilak (who was released in June 1914), supported the war efforts in the mistaken belief that Britain would repay India's loyalty with gratitude in the form of selfgovernment; and (iii) the revolutionaries decided to utilise the opportunity to wage a war on British rule and liberate the country.
Home Rule League Movement Two Indian Home Rule Leagues were organised on the lines of the lrish Home Rule Leagues and they represented the emergence of a new trend of aggressive politics. Annie Besant and Tilak were the pioneers of this new trend Factors Favouring the Movement 1. Need being felt for popular pressure to attain concessions. 2. Disillusionment with Morley-Minto Reforms. 3. Wartime miseries-public ready to protest. 4. Tilak, Besant ready to assume leadership
Tilak's League Tilak set up his Home Rule League in April 1916 and it was restricted to Maharashtra (excluding Bombay city), Karnataka, Central Provinces and Berar. It had six branches and the demands included swarajya, formation of linguistic states and education in the vernacular. Besant's League Annie Besant set up her league in September 1916 in Madras and covered the rest of India (including Bombay city). It had 200 branches, was loosely organised as compared to Tilak's League and had George Arundale as the organising secretary.
Aim of the Movement To convey to the common marn the concept of Home Rule as self-government. Methods used Organising discussions, reading rooms, propaganda through public meetings, newspapers, pamphlets, posters, etc .The Home Rule agitation was later joined by Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai, Chittaranjan Das, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Tej Bahadur Sapru and Lala Lajpat Rai. Anglo-Indians, most of the Muslims and non-brahmins from the South did not join
Why the Agitation Faded Out by 1919 The reasons for the decline were as follows. (i) There was a lack of effective organisation. (ii) Communal riots were witnessed during 1917-18. (iii) The Moderates who had joined the Congress after Annie Besant's arrest were pacified by talk of reforms (contained in Montagu's statement of August 1917 which held self- government as the long-term goal of the British rule in India) and Besant's release (iv) Talk of passive resistance by the Extremists kept the Moderates away from activity from September 1918 onwards. (v) The Montagu-Chelmsford reforms which became known in July 1918 further divided the nationalist ranks
Positive Gains .Emphasis shifted to the masses permanently .organisational link established between town and country; prepared a generation of ardent nationalists, influenced Moderate-Extremist reunion at Lucknow (1916) Lucknow Session of INC-1916 Extremists were readmitted to Congress Lucknow Pact. Congress accepted the League's position on separate . Muslim League and Congress put up joint demands under electorates.
Montagu's Statement of August 1917 The Secretary of State for India, Edwin Samuel Montagu, made a statement on August 20, 1917 in the British House of Commons in what has come to be known as the August Declaration of 1917. The statement said: "The government policy is of an increasing participation of Indians in every branch of administration and gradual development of selfgoverning institutions with a view to the progressive realisation of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire."
Indian Objections (i) No specific time frame was given. (ii) The government alone was to decide the nature and the timing of advance towards a responsible government, and the Indians were resentful that the British would decide what was good and what was bad for Indians.