NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-18) Presented By- Shiv Kumcr
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Era of Militant Nationalism (1905- 1909) Why Militant Nationalism Grew . Recognition of the True Nature of British Rule 1892 The Indian Councils Act was criticised by nationalists as it failed to satisfy them. 1897- The Natu brothers were deported without trial and Tilak and others, imprisoned on charges of sedition. 1898- Repressive laws under IPC Section 124 A were further amplified with new provisions under IPC Section 156A 1899 Number of Indian members in Calcutta Corporation were reduced. 1904- Official Secrets Act curbed freedom of press
1904 Indian Universities Act ensured greater government control over universities, which it described as factories producing political revolutionaries. Growth of Confidence and Self-Respect Tilak, Aurobindo and Bipin Chandra Pal repeatedly urged the nationalists to rely on the character and capacities of the Indian people. A feeling started gaining currency that the masses had to be involved in the battle against colonial government Growth of Education International Influences The defeat of the Italian army by Ethiopians (1896), the Boer wars (1899-1902) where the British faced reverses and Japan's victory over Russia (1905) demolished myths of European invincibility.
.Reaction to Increasing Westernisation . Dissatisfaction with Achievements of Moderates Reactionary Policies of Curzon Administrative measures adopted during his rule-the Official Secrets Act, the Indian Universities Act, the Calcutta Corporation Act and, above all, the partition of Bengal-left no doubt in Indian minds about the basically reactionary nature of British rule in India. Existence of a Militant School of Thought Raj Narain Bose, Ashwini Kumar Datta, Aurobindo Ghosh and Bipin Chandra Pal in Bengal; Vishnu Shastri Chiplunkar and Bal Gangadhar Tilak in Maharashtra; and Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab. Tilak emerged as the most outstanding representative of this school of thought.
The basic tenets of this school of thought were: hatred for foreign rule; since no hope could be derived from it, Indians should work out their own salvation; . swaraj to be the goal of national movement; direct political action required; belief in capacity of the masses to challenge the authority; personal sacrifices required and a true nationalist to be always ready for it. Emergence of a Trained Leadership