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Comprehensive study of Environment ( PT-365)( current+ static) great flamingo, pollinators
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Comprehensive study of Environment In this lesson we discussed - Great flamingo - declining pollinators

Komal Shekhawat
Written two UPSC Mains (2017-2018) love to teach and learn.

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  1. Comprehensive coverage on environment


  2. POLLINATORS Context According to a recent studies, high levels of pollution is having negative effects on plants and insects, resulting into decline of pollinator species. Importance of pollinators and pollination oRegulating ecosystem service in nature: Globally, nearly 90 per cent of wild flowering plant species depend, at least in part, on the transfer of pollen by animals. . Food Security: Pollinator-dependent crops contribute to 35 per cent of global crop production volume.



  3. . Health: Pollinator-dependent food products are important contributors to healthy human diets and nutrition. Cultural Importance: Pollinators serve as important spiritual symbols in many cultures. Sacred passages about bees in all the worlds' major religions highlight their significance to human societies over millennia Economic Importance: According to Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), pollinator contributed $0.831-1.5 billion annually for just six vegetable crops in India


  4. Sources of Threats to Pollinators e Environment pollution: Pollutants in the air, water and land affect the physiology and behavior of the insects. o Anthropogenic factor like disturbance, degradation, fragmentation, shrinkage, and the loss of habitat Impact of introduced species: Alien invasive plants may impact negatively on insect biodiversity by changing habitat quality, outcompeting native host plants, and interrupting vital ecological interactions. Increase in mono-cropping: The transformation of agriculture from traditional mixed crop farming to high value cash crop farming has led to an increase in monocrop agriculture, resulting in reducing the food sources for natural insect pollinators. Forest fires: It destroy the habitat, food sources and pollinators nesting in the area. Honey hunting: An increase and ruthless hunting of the nests of wild honeybees is contributing to the decline in the population of indigenous honeybees


  5. . Pesticides: Use of pesticides, including insecticides and herbicides, is detrimental to a healthy community of pollinators. Way Froward Enabling policies and strategies: Develop and implement coherent and comprehensive policies that enable and foster activities to safeguard and promote wild and managed pollinators, to be integrated into the broader policy agendas for sustainable development Protect and promote indigenous and traditional knowledge, innovations and practices related to pollinators and pollination and support participatory approaches to the identification of diagnostic characteristics for new species and monitoring. Control the trade and movement of managed pollinators: Monitor the movement and trade of managed pollinator species, sub-species and breeds among countries and within countries to Prevent and minimize the risk of introducing invasive alien species. Promote connectivity, conservation, management and restoration of pollinator habitats by preserving pollinators and habitats distributed in natural areas, including forests, grasslands and agricultural lands, urban areas and natural corridors, to enhance the availability of floral resources and nesting sites over time and space


  6. Promote sustainable beekeeping and bee health: By promoting better availability and husbandry of floral resources, therefore improving pollinator nutrition and immunity to pests and diseases. Practicing Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Exposure of pollinators to pesticides can be decreased by promoting Integrated Pest Management supported by educating farmers, organic farming and policies to reduce its overall use. o Ecological Intensification: Managing nature's ecological functions to improve agricultural production and livelihoods while minimizing environmental damage o Strengthening Existing Diversified Farming Systems: to foster pollinators and pollination through practices validated by science or indigenous and local knowledge (e.g., crop rotation o Investing in ecological infrastructure by protecting, restoring and connecting patches of natural and seminatural habitats throughout productive agricultural landscapes


  7. GREATER FLAMINGOES Context Greater Flamingoes have been spotted on the Coast of Hope Island, a part of the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, after a gap of 25 years. About Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (CWLS): o It is situated in Andhra Pradesh near confluence of Godavari and Bay of Bengal and houses the second largest mangroves forest in India. The Hope Island, Kakinada Port and CWLS come within Coastal Circuit theme of Swadesh Darshan Scheme of Ministry of Tourism. Historically, Coringa has been a major port city which was used for the export of manpower during the time of British to Malaysia. The successors of those migrants are called Korangis there. About Greater Flamingoes These come under 'Least Concern' category of IUCN Red List. They prefer shallow brackish lakes & use mudflats & saltpans for nesting They are the indicators of healthy coastal environment. They are filter feeders (take prey and water together and then filter out water) and get their characteristic pink colour from their diet of brine shrimps and algae available in the coastal wetlands.