ve overage on Environment
INDIA WATER IMPACT SUMMIT 2018 AND URBAN RIVER MANAGEMENT PLAN Context Recently, 3rd India Water Impact Summit 2018 was jointly organized by the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) and the Centre for Ganga River Basin Management and Studies (C-Ganga) About India Water Impact Summit . It is an annual event where stakeholders get together to discuss, debate and develop model solutions for some of the biggest water-related problems in the country. Ganga Finance Forum was introduced which brought together financial sector experts to provide various innovative financial instruments e.g. social impact bonds, masala bonds, long-term debt financing, and use of blockchain in the financial sector were proposed. It highlighted the need of decentralization and community driven treatment of sewage and decided to set up a working group to build a model Urban River Management Plan.
Urban River Management Plan for Ganga River Basin(GRB) -It will have planning horizon of 25 years and will essentially be a compendium of all 'actions' to be undertaken during this time for comprehensive riverbank management and wastewater management in the town Why URMPs are essential? At the present time, many projects on riverbank and wastewater management in various towns are being sanctioned by various ministries under various programmes with the general objective of improvement of the state of rivers in the GRB. . However, in the absence of URMPs, it appears that the micro-level planning that is required for obtaining the optimal benefits from such projects is not in place. Preparation of URMPs thus provides the underlying planning structure that is required for obtaining the optimal benefits from implementation of such projects.
. C-Ganga . It has been established at Indian Insti of Technology, Kanpur (IITK) as a centre of excellence to further the development of Ganga River Basin. . *It channelizes scientific inputs from international experts and organizations for Ganga River Basin Management Plan. It will act in the capacity of a comprehensive think- tank for the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, in its stated goals and objectives vis- -vis the Ganga River Basin.
ROTOCOL ASSESSMENT The quadrennial (four-yearly) review of the Montreal Protocol rev healing ozone layer, global warming reduction potential, and options for more ambitious climate action Key findings of the Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018 Actions taken under the Montreal Protocol have led to decreases in the atmospheric abundance of controlled ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and the start of the recovery of stratospheric ozone. .The atmospheric abundances of both total tropospheric chlorine and total tropospheric bromine from long-lived ODSs controlled under the Montreal Protocol have continued to decline since the 2014 Assessment. Outside the Polar Regions, upper stratospheric ozone layer has recovered at a rate of 1-3% per decade since 2000.
The Antarctic ozone hole is recovering, while continuing to o every year. As a result of the Montreal Protocol much more severe ozone depletion in the Polar Regions has been avoided At projected rates, Northern Hemisphere and midlatitude ozone is scheduled to heal completely (i.e. equivalent to 1980 values) by the 2030s followed by the Southern Hemisphere in the 2050s and Polar Regions by 2060 . The Kigali Amendment is projected to reduce future global average warming in 2100 due to hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) from a baseline of 0.3-0.5 degree Celsius to less than 0.1 degree Celsius
ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Context . Recently, Conference of the Parties (COP 14) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was held, adopting Sharm El-Sheikh Declaration. Highlight of COP-14 Adoption of Sharm El-Sheikh Declaration on Investing in Biodiversity for People and Planet. o Governments commit to mainstream biodiversity through, integrating biodiversity values in legislative and policy frameworks, and development and finance plans. Other Important Highlight . New Deal for Nature: It is an agreement on a comprehensive and participatory process to develop post-2020 global biodiversity framework to further achieve the 2050 Vision for Biodiversity. Launch of International Alliance of Nature and Culture to advance work on biological and cultural diversity in collaboration with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and indigenous peoples and local communities. It called for UN General Assembly to designate 2021 to 2030 as the UN Decade of Ecosystem Restoration.
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Aim: To promote the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. It's a near universal convention with a participation of 196 member countries. Protocols adopted under the Convention. Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: It seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organismsresulting from modern biotechnology. Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing: It aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies.
RATION IN INDIA context . Despite persisting drought like conditions, many states did not declare, officially, the drought. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) declared that 255 districts (31% of the districts in India) of the country recorded deficient (-59 to -20 per cent) or scanty (-99 to 60) rainfall, thus facing drought like conditions. .More than 50 per cent of the districts in Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Meghalaya, Karnataka Arunachal Pradesh and Goa received deficient rainfall
Some states, including Maharashtra, Karnataka, Odisha, An Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand declared drought. . However, Gujarat, where 67 per cent of districts received deficient rainfall, is yet to declare a drought. Assam has received 26 per cent of deficit rainfall but not yet declared drought districts. Reason behind unwillingness of states to declare drought .The 2016 manual not only has made the parameters to declare drought complex and stringent, but has also limited Centre's scope to offer financial assistance to states in the eventuality of a drought. The Centre will only provide funds under National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) to state governments in case of "Severe" drought.
Declaration of Drought The Manual for Drought Manageme released in December 2016 by the Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, prescribes "new scientific indices and parameters" for a "more accurate assessment of drought" in the country. The manual lists five categories of indices, which include rainfall, agriculture, soil moisture, hydrology, and remote sensing (health of crops) Rainfall is considered to be the most important indicator and therefore related meteorological data should be mandatorily considered in making any assessment of drought. The other indices are to be evaluated in conjunction with the rainfal related data to assess the impact of rainfall deficiency.
Forecasting: It is difficult to determine the beginning and end of a drought e because of the slow, 'creepy' onset, silent spread and gradual withdrawal. In India, is generally considered to be coterminous with the monsoons. Temporal and Spatial Extent: An episode could spill over months or even years with or without any accompanying shift in the geographical arena. o Spatial expanse tends to be far greater than in the case of other natural calamities, which when compounded by the difficulties associated with the impact assessment of the disaster, makes effective response highly challenging. Measurement of Severity of Drought: There is no indicator or index which can precisely forecast the advent and severity of a drought event, nor project its possible impacts Difficulty in Impact Forecast: Impacts are generally non-structural and difficult to quantify e.g. the damage to the ecology, the disruption of socio-economic fabric of communities, the long term effects of mal-nutrition on health and morbidity