(PT365)- Comprehensive coverage on Envirgnment
SEABED 2030 CONTEXT The U.N.-backed project Seabed 2030 is pooling data from the countries and companies to create a map of the entire ocean floor. About Seabed 2030: e It aims to bring together all available bathymetric data (measures of depth and shape of the seafloor) to produce the definitive map of the world ocean floor by 2030 and make it available to all. e It is a collaborative project between the Nippon Foundation and General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), The project was launched at the United Nations (UN) Ocean Conference in June 2017 and is aligned with the UN's Sustainable Development Goal #14 to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources. e Central to the Seabed 2030 strategy is the creation of Regional Data Assembly and Coordination Centres (RDACCs), with each having a defined ocean region of responsibility. A board will be established for each region consisting of local experts to identify existing bathymetric data, and to help coordinate new bathymetric surveys
Significance Sea-bed Mapping Bathymetric data from the deep ocean is critical for studying marine geology and geophysics. For example, Bathymetric data obtained in 1950s and '60s led to modern understanding of Plate tectonics. The shape of the seabed is a crucial parameter for understanding ocean circulation patterns as well as an important variable for accurately forecasting tsunami wave propagation. Bathymetric data illuminates the study of tides, wave action, sediment transport underwater geo-hazards, cable routing, resource exploration, extension of continental shelf (UN Law of the Sea treaty issues), military and defence applications. In coastal regions, bathymetry underpins marine and maritime spatial planning and decision-making, navigation safety, and provides a scientific basis for models of storm surges, while also informing our understanding of marine ecosystems and habitats Detailed knowledge of bathymetry is a fundamental prerequisite for attaining an improved understanding of the subsea processes.
Challenges Even using the RDACC model, the goal of mapping the entire world ocean is a significant challenge Crowdsourcing bathymetric data from fishing vessels and recreational small boats etc. represents one approach for gathering information in shallower water regions, but is less efficient. Deep water mapping remains a major challenge due to the cost involved and the limited number of available research vessels that are equipped with modern deep, water multibeam sonars. Way forward o Reach out to the national and international funding agencies, to get adequate funding to support Seabed 2030 vision. Keeping up with technology overtime to make sure that processes, products and services are forward looking and well-positioned to make use of new technologies as they become available. o . Given the sheer size of the ocean the Seabed 2030 goals can only be achieved through international coordination and collaboration
About GEBCO .GEBCO is an international group of mapping experts which aims to provide the most authoritative publicly-available bathymetry of the world's oceans. .It operates under the joint auspices of the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) (of UNESCO)
GUIDELINES FOR GROUND WATER EXTRACTION
GUIDELINES FOR GROUND WATER EXTRACTION Context e The Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) notified revised guidelines for ground water (GW) extraction to be effective from 1st June 2019. . Brief Background India is the largest user of ground water in the world about 25% of the global ground water extraction. Out of the total of 6584 assessment units, 1034 have been categorized as 'Over- exploited"; 253 as Critical'; 681 as Semi-Critical, and 96 assessment units have been classified as Saline The Easement Act, 1882, provides every landowner with the right to collect and dispose, within his own limits, all water under the land and on the surface. Landowners are not legally liable for any damage caused to water resources as a result of over-extraction . . In its various orders, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) has asked the CGWA to regulate the GW extraction by various users through system of registrations and No Objection Certificate (NOC) and user fees with a limit on quantum of GW to be extracted. In compliance with the NGT orders, the CGWA had circulated the draft guidelines for grant of 'No Objection Certificate' on the 11th October 2017
Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA), constituted under the Environment (Protection) Act of 1986 has the mandate of regulating ground water development and management in the country. CGWA has been regulating ground water development for its sustainable management in the country through measures such as issue of advisories, public notices, grant of No Objection Certificates (NOC) for ground water withdrawal.
Salient features of the revised guidelines: The revised guidelines aim to ensure a more robust ground water regulatory mechanism in the country through system of NOC and user fee. . For Industries Introduction of the concept of Water Conservation Fee (WCF) which varies with the category of the area, type of industry and the quantum of ground water extraction. industries in over-exploited. use efficiency and discourage the growth of packaged drinking water units. The high rates of WCF are expected to discourage setting up of new The WCF would also compel industries to adopt measures relating to water
NOC to industries shall be granted only for such cases where government agencies are not able to supply the desired quantity of water. Encouraging use of recycled and treated sewage water by industries. Provision of action against polluting industries, and measures to be adopted to ensure prevention of ground water contamination in premises of polluting industries/ projects. Mandatory requirement of digital flow meters, piezometers and digital water level recorders (with or without telemetry depending upon quantum of extraction). Mandatory water audit by industries abstracting ground water 500 m3 /day or more in safe and semi-critical and 200 m3 /day or more in critical and overexploited assessment units. o Mandatory roof top rain water harvesting except for specified industries
. Exemptions Exemption from requirement of NOC has been given to agricultural users, users employing non-energised means to extract water, individual households (using less than 1 inch diameter delivery pipe) and Armed Forces Establishments during operational deployment or during mobilization in forward locations. o Other exemptions (with certain requirements) have been granted to strategic and operational infrastructure projects for Armed Forces, Defence and Paramilitary Forces Establishments and Government water supply agencies in safe and semi critical areas.