(PT365)- Comprehensive study on Environment For prelim and Mains ( Current+ static)
CITES What is CITES? It is an International agreement between governments, drafted as a res ult of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of Internat ional Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) It ensures that international trade in the specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. CITES regulates international trade in species by including species on o ne of the three Appendices.
Appendix I - includes species threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional cir cumstances e.g. Tiger, Himalayan brown bear, elephant, and Tibetan a ntelope. Appendix II - includes species not necessarily threatened with extinctio n, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization inc ompatible with their survival e.g. Hippopotamus, bigleaf mahogany, an d the gray wolf Appendix I a species included at the request of a country which then needs the cooperation of other countries to help prevent illegal exploit ation, e.g. walrus, Hoffmann's two-toed sloth, and the red-breasted tou can
Reasons mentioned in study for decreasing population e Other reasons include pollution(water and noise), deliberate killing for dolphin oil, bycatch in o A Conservation Action Plan for the Gangetic Dolphin 2010-2020 has been formulated by the o It provides following recommendations The hyper-saline zone in Sunderbans, caused by the rising temperature and sea-level. gillnets and line hooks etc. Conservation Efforts Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. Potential sites for intense dolphin conservation regional Dolphin Conservation Centre. The use of nylon monofilament fishing gillnets should be banned and Critical water flow and minimum depths for all river dolphin habitats should be determined. Trans-boundary Protected Areas between India, Nepal and Bangladesh National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG): In its efforts of biodiversity conservation in Ganga River basin, it has been working further on the Ganges River Dolphin Conservation Action Plan and has taken up steps to coordinate with various institutions for capacity building, generated awareness, involvement of stakeholders for Ganga River Dolphin.
GREAT INDIAN BUSTARD CONTEXT A recent study suggests that, Great Indian Bustard population has been falling continuously, from around 1,260 in 1969 to less than 200 in 2018 About Great Indian bustard (Ardeotis Nigriceps) It's among the heaviest bird with a horizontal body and long bare legs giving it an ostrich like appearance. Habitat: Arid and semi-arid grasslands, open country with thorn scrub, tall grass interspersed with cultivation. It avoids irrigated areas. It is endemic to Indian Sub-continent, found in central India, western India and eastern Pakistan
Currently, it is found in only six states in the country - Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Karnataka. Protection: Listed in Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List It is also listed in Appendix I of CITES and covered under CMS or Bonn Convention. Bustard Species Found In India: Great Indian Bustard, the Lesser Florican and the Bengal Florican; Houbara also belong to Bustard family but it's a migratory species. Importance to Ecosystem: GIB is an indicator species for grassland habitats and its gradual disappearance from such environments shows their deterioration Once the species is lost, there will be no other species to replace it, and that will destabilise the ecosystem of the grassland and affect critical bio-diversities, as well as blackbucks and wolves, who share their habitat with the GIB
Threat: Hunting, poaching, habitat erosion, 'greening' projects that transform arid grasslands to wooded areas, change of land use from grassland to farmland, collisions with high tension electric wires, fast moving vehicles and free-ranging dogs in villages Conservation Steps: Great Indian Bustard, popularly known as Godawan', is Rajasthan's state bird The state government has started "Project Godawan" for its conservation at Desert National Park (DNP) in Jaisalmer. It's one of the Species for The Recovery Programme under the Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats of the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats . It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme where Gol provides financial and technical assistance to the State/UT Governments for activities aimed at wildlife conservation. Bustard Recovery Programme o Identify the core breeding areas for bustards and keep them inviolate from human disturbances e The guidelines suggest restriction on infrastructure development and land use diversion for roads, high tension electric poles, intensive agriculture, wind power generators and construction o Only low intensity, traditional pastoral activities should be allowed, that too, not during the breeding season, say the guidelines Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) or Bonn convention It is the only convention under UNEP which provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats ( and their migration routes). India is a member of the convention.
TIGER CONSERVATION CONTEXT Recently a new study by World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) found that under optimal conditions, tiger numbers can triple in 18 sites across the world, including eight in India. Another study by researchers has found Royal Bengal Tiger in the snow- capped regions of the Eastern Himalaya at an altitude of more than 4,000m in Dibang valley of Arunachal Pradesh. This new assessment could guide planning for tiger recovery globally and help inform more effective, integrated approaches to tiger conservation. The presence of the big cats in Dibang valley which is not even a tiger reserve is a tribute to the ways the people there have been coexisting with the animals
Conservation Efforts in India Project Tiger: The Government of India launched the centrally Sponsored Scheme the 'Project Tiger' in 1973 for for in-situ conservation of wild tigers in designated tiger reserves. The Project Tiger coverage has increased to 50 tiger reserves at present. The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA): It is a statutory body established in 2006 under MoEFCC performing functions as provided in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Presently It implements major tiger conservation initiatives like project tiger, Tiger conservation plan etc. e Monitoring System for Tigers - Intensive Protection and Ecological Status (M-STrIPES): It is a software-based monitoring system launched across Indian tiger reserves by the NTCA
ASIATIC LION CONSERVATION PROJECT CONTEXT The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change launched the "Asiatic Lion Conservation Project" with an aim to protect and conserve the world's last ranging free population of Asiatic Lion and its associated ecosystem. Asiatic lions that once ranged from Persia (Iran) to Palamau in Eastern India were almost driven to extinction by indiscriminate hunting and habitat loss. A single population of less than 50 lions persisted in the Gir forests of Gujarat by late 1890's. With timely and stringent protection offered by the State Government and the Center Government, Asiatic lions have increased to thee current population of over 500 numbers. Recently 23 Lions died in short period of 20 days, due to Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) and tick-bore Babesiosis, again raising a concern for their conservatio
Promoting Private Participation in charging Infrastructure: They will be permitted to set up charging stations at residences, and distribution companies (DISCOMs) are to facilitate the same. Ease of Setting: No license will be required for setting set up a public charging station and any individual or entity is free to set up one if they follow the standards and guidelines Location of Public Charging Station: Charging station must cater to slow as well as fast- charging requirements and it mandates minimum one station in a 9-sq. km area eRollout plan: Phase l (1-3 years) will cover all mega cities with population above forty lakh, and the associated expressways and highways. Phase ll (3-5 years) will cover state and UT capitals. Tariff. The Central or State Electricity Regulatory Commissions will determine the tariff for supply of electricity to the public charging stations. However, such tariff will not be more than the average cost of supply plus 15%. Domestic tariffs will apply for domestic charging of EVs.
Challenges in setting Effective Charging Infrastructure in India: Lack of Crucial Resources: India has very little known reserves of lithium; other crucial components such as nickel, cobalt and batterygrade graphite are also imported. Lack of Skill: We still lack sufficient technical know-how in lithium battery manufacturing. Time consuming: It still takes longer to charge an electric vehicle than it does to refuel a conventional car at the pump. Sector Suitability: Heavy-duty truck transportation and aviation, will remain difficult to electrify without drastic advances in battery technology. Chemical pollution: Lack of eco-friendly disposal facilities of batteries in India to curb pollution