(PT365)- Comprehensive coverage on Environment
TIGER CONSERVATION CONTEXT Recently a new study by World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) found that under optimal conditions, tiger numbers can triple in 18 sites across the world, including eight in India. Another study by researchers has found Royal Bengal Tiger in the snow- capped regions of the Eastern Himalaya at an altitude of more than 4,000m in Dibang valley of Arunachal Pradesh. This new assessment could guide planning for tiger recovery globally and help inform more effective, integrated approaches to tiger conservation. The presence of the big cats in Dibang valley which is not even a tiger reserve is a tribute to the ways the people there have been coexisting with the animals
Threats to Tiger Population in India . Habitat loss: o Industrial Development has led to increased pressure on their natural habitat due to increased deforestation. o Forest fires and floods leading to habitat loss also continue to pose a threat to their survival. o National Highways often run through the tiger reserves which in turn lead to habitat fragmentation. Poaching: Tigers have been illegally hunted due to their demand in traditional Chinese medicines, decorative works, etc. e. Man-Animal conflict: Growing incidents of human-tiger conflict protected also pose significant challenge. Inbreeding of the tiger species is also a major concern as inbred animals are e to acquiring crippling defects, lack of capacity to adapt and psychological issues.
Conservation Efforts in India Project Tiger: The Government of India launched the centrally Sponsored Scheme the 'Project Tiger' in 1973 for for in-situ conservation of wild tigers in designated tiger reserves. The Project Tiger coverage has increased to 50 tiger reserves at present. The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA): It is a statutory body established in 2006 under MoEFCC performing functions as provided in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Presently It implements major tiger conservation initiatives like project tiger, Tiger conservation plan etc. e Monitoring System for Tigers - Intensive Protection and Ecological Status (M-STrIPES): It is a software-based monitoring system launched across Indian tiger reserves by the NTCA
Global Conservation Efforts The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI): It was launched in 2008 FORconservation and scientific communities and the private sector and includes organization like the World Bank, the Global Environment Facility (GEF), etc. It aims to work together to save wild tigers from extinction. In 2013, the scope was broadened to include Snow Leopards. The initiative is led by the 13 tiger range countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand, and Vietnam) The Global Tiger Forum (GTF) is the only inter- governmental international body established with members from willing countries to embark on a global campaign to protect the Tiger. TX2: In 2010, the St. Petersburg Declaration on Tiger Conservation was adopted under the GTI and the Global Tiger Recovery Programme or TX2 was endorsed. Its goal was to double the number of wild tigers across their geographical areas. The WWF is implementing the programme in 13 tiger range countries Conservation Assured Tiger Standards CAITS: It is a new tool for tiger conservation management. It is a set of criteria which allows tiger sites to check if their management will lead to successful tiger conservation. It is an important part of Tx2 programme.
ASIATIC LION CONSERVATION PROJECT CONTEXT The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change launched the "Asiatic Lion Conservation Project" with an aim to protect and conserve the world's last ranging free population of Asiatic Lion and its associated ecosystem. Asiatic lions that once ranged from Persia (Iran) to Palamau in Eastern India were almost driven to extinction by indiscriminate hunting and habitat loss. A single population of less than 50 lions persisted in the Gir forests of Gujarat by late 1890's. With timely and stringent protection offered by the State Government and the Center Government, Asiatic lions have increased to thee current population of over 500 numbers. Recently 23 Lions died in short period of 20 days, due to Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) and tick-bore Babesiosis, again raising a concern for their conservatio
CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE GUIDELINES CONTEXT Recently, Government released guideline on Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles. Need of charging infrastructure: It play a pivotal role on Electric Vehicle (EV) deployment, and, in the absence of a proactive plan and schedule, is a major impediment to mass market adoption. According to McKinsey's 2016 EV consumer survey of buyers, not having enough access to efficient charging stations as the third most serious barrier to EV purchase, behind price and driving range. Highlight of Guidelines Objective: To enable faster adoption of electric vehicles in India, promote an affordable tariff system for EV owners and operators of charging stations, generate employment and income opportunities for small business owners, support the creation of EV charging infrastructure and eventually create a market for this business
Promoting Private Participation in charging Infrastructure: They will be permitted to set up charging stations at residences, and distribution companies (DISCOMs) are to facilitate the same. Ease of Setting: No license will be required for setting set up a public charging station and any individual or entity is free to set up one if they follow the standards and guidelines Location of Public Charging Station: Charging station must cater to slow as well as fast- charging requirements and it mandates minimum one station in a 9-sq. km area eRollout plan: Phase l (1-3 years) will cover all mega cities with population above forty lakh, and the associated expressways and highways. Phase ll (3-5 years) will cover state and UT capitals. Tariff. The Central or State Electricity Regulatory Commissions will determine the tariff for supply of electricity to the public charging stations. However, such tariff will not be more than the average cost of supply plus 15%. Domestic tariffs will apply for domestic charging of EVs.