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Comprehensive Study of Environment PT 365 - 6 (in Hindi)
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Comprehensive study of Environment In this lesson we discussed - Coastal regulation zone - sea level rise

Komal Shekhawat
Written two UPSC Mains (2017-2018) love to teach and learn.

U
Unacademy user
sir hindi me translate kijiy
  1. (PT365)- Comprehensive coverage on Envirgnment


  2. COASTAL REGULATION ZONE (CRZ) NOTIFICATION 2018 The Union Cabinet has approved the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification, 2018 Background To conserve and protect the coastal environment, and to promote sustainable development based on scientific principles Ministry of Environment and Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, notified the CRZ Notification in 1991, subsequently revised in 2011 e Various Coastal States/UTs, besides other stakeholders, were demanding for a comprehensive review of the CRZ Notification, 2011, particularly related to the management and conservation of marine and coastal eco-systems, development in coastal areas, eco-tourism, livelihood option and sustainable development of coastal communities etc.


  3. In June 2014, Shailesh Nayak Committee was constituted by the MoEFCC to review the the CRZ Notification, 2011. Government in April 2018, released a draft notification on coastal regulation zone taking inputs from states/UTs and recommendations of Shailesh Nayak Committee


  4. Salient Features Easing FSI norms: This notification defreezes the restrictions imposed on Floor Space Index (FSI) or the Floor Area Ratio (FAR) under CRZ, 2011 in accordance to 1991 Development Control Regulation (DCR) levels. No development zone (NDZ) reduced for densely populated areas: For CRZ-IIl areas o CRZ IlI A areas shall have a NDZ of 50 meters from the HTL on the landward side as against 200 meters from the HTL stipulated in the CRZ Notification, 2011. CRZ-III B areas shall continue to have an NDZ of 200 meters from the HTL. e Tourism infrastructure for basic amenities to be promoted: The notification allows for temporary tourism facilities such as shacks, toilet blocks, change rooms, drinking water facilities etc on beaches at a minimum distance of 10 metres from HTL. Such temporary tourism facilities are also now permissible in the NDZ of the CRZ-Ill areas. CRZ Clearances streamlined: o CRZ clearances are needed only for projects located in CRZ- I and CRZ IV. o States to have the powers for clearances w.r.t CRZ-II and IlI with necessary guidance


  5. NDZ of 20 meters has been stipulated for all Islands: in the wake of space limitations and unique geography and to bring uniformity in treatment of such regions. . All Ecologically Sensitive Areas have been accorded special importance: Through Specific guidelines related to their conservation and management plans. Pollution abatement has been accorded special focus: By permitting construction of treatment facilities in CRZ-I B area subject to necessary safeguards. . Defence and strategic projects have been accorded necessary dispensation


  6. Benefits Enhanced activities in the coastal regions thereby promoting economic growth while also respecting the conservation principles of coastal regions Boost tourism in terms of more activities, more infrastructure and more opportunities in creating employment opportunities. opportunities for development of densely populated rural areasin the CRZs. o CRZ, 2018 is also in sync with the thrust being given to port-led industrialisation and the Coastal Economic Zones projects. Additional opportunities for affordable housingwhich will benefit not only the housing sector but the people at large looking for shelter. It is expected to rejuvenate the coastal areas while reducing their vulnerabilities


  7. Concerns The new notification has done away with or diluted many stringent restrictions in place at coastal areas. The emphasis of the new CRZ norms is on promotion of tourism facilities, quicker dispensation of defence and strategic projects and liberal licensing for the installation of treatment plants Eco-sensitive regions could see flurry of construction activity thereby hampering the coastal eco system and biodiversity The notification violates the balance between ecosystem and development. The mandatory 50 m buffer zone for mangrove forest in private land with an expanse of more than 1,000 sq m has been done away with The fishermen are worried that the entry of the tourism sector will attract the real estate lobbies, who will eventually displace the coastal community and deny them the access to the seas o Further, the reduction of NDZ is done without taking consideration of sea level rise. The coastline is already vulnerable due to erosion, fresh water crisis and loss of livelihoods. The new changes will only increase this vulnerability and promote commercialisation of the coast The Hazard Line, mapped by the Survey of India has, however, been de-linked from the CRZ regulatory regime and will be used only as a tool for disaster management and planning of adaptive and mitigation measures The treatment facilities, allowed in CRZ-I to reduce coastal pollution, means several ecologically fragile areas will have sewage treatment plants transferring pollution from land to sea


  8. . The notification permits activities like reclamation of land for commercial activities, interference with sand dunes, large scale recreation and drawing of ground water within the 200-500 metres from the HTL, which is detrimental to the coastal ecology and that will displace the local communities and affect the biodiversity. Conclusion The sustainable management depends on the nature of the social system, comprising political, economic and industrial infrastructure and its linkages, with the knowledge about coastal systems as well as local communities. India need to move from a purely regulatory approach towards an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).


  9. SEA LEVEL RISE


  10. SEA LEVEL RISE IN INDIA CONTEXT As per the study by Hyderabad-based Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Sea levels along the Indian coast are projected to rise between 3.5 inches to 34 inch (2.8 feet) by the end of century due to global warming. e Impact of Sea Level Rise Large-scale displacement: A large population in the world lives along coastal areas (about 10% of world's population), a sea level rise will force a large population to migrate from coastal areas creating huge economic and social costs. A disruption in socio-economic life and large scale internal and external migration may crate social strife across nations.


  11. Reduction in Drinking Water: Sea Level Rise will increase salinity in underground water in coastal areas, significantly reducing the available drinking water. Impact on Food Security: Due to flooding and salt water intrusion into the soil, the salinity of agricultural lands near the sea increases, posing problems for crops that are not salt-resistant. International Conflicts: Sea Level Rise will change the exclusive economic zones of nations, potentially creating conflicts between neighboring nations. Impact on Island Nations: Maldives, Tulavu, Marshall Islands and other low lying countries are among the areas that are at highest level of risk. At current rates, Maldives could become uninhabitable by 2100. Five of the Solomon Islands have disappeared due to combined effect of Sea Level Rise and stronger trade winds


  12. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise o Adaptation options to sea level rise can be broadly classified into retreat, accommodate and protect. Retreating is moving people and infrastructure to less exposed areas and preventing further development in areas that are at risk. This type of adaptation is potentially disruptive, as displacement of people might lead to tensions. Accommodation options are measurements that make societies more flexible to sea level rise. Examples are the cultivation of food crops that tolerate a high salt content in the soil and making new building standards which require building to be built higher and have less damage in the case a flood does occur. Protect: areas can be protected by the construction of dams, dikes and by improving natural defenses. These adaptation options can be further divided into hard and soft. e o e o Hard adaptation relies mostly on capital-intensive human-built infrastructure and involves large-scale changes to human societies and ecological systems. Because of its large scale, it is often not flexible. e o Soft adaptation involves strengthening natural defenses and adaptation strategies in local communities and the use of simple and modular technology, which can be locally owned. The two types of adaptation might be complementary or mutually exclusive


  13. Challenges Even using the RDACC model, the goal of mapping the entire world ocean is a significant challenge Crowdsourcing bathymetric data from fishing vessels and recreational small boats etc. represents one approach for gathering information in shallower water regions, but is less efficient. Deep water mapping remains a major challenge due to the cost involved and the limited number of available research vessels that are equipped with modern deep, water multibeam sonars. Way forward o Reach out to the national and international funding agencies, to get adequate funding to support Seabed 2030 vision. Keeping up with technology overtime to make sure that processes, products and services are forward looking and well-positioned to make use of new technologies as they become available. o . Given the sheer size of the ocean the Seabed 2030 goals can only be achieved through international coordination and collaboration


  14. GUIDELINES FOR GROUND WATER EXTRACTION Context e The Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) notified revised guidelines for ground water (GW) extraction to be effective from 1st June 2019. . Brief Background India is the largest user of ground water in the world about 25% of the global ground water extraction. Out of the total of 6584 assessment units, 1034 have been categorized as 'Over- exploited"; 253 as Critical'; 681 as Semi-Critical, and 96 assessment units have been classified as Saline The Easement Act, 1882, provides every landowner with the right to collect and dispose, within his own limits, all water under the land and on the surface. Landowners are not legally liable for any damage caused to water resources as a result of over-extraction . . In its various orders, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) has asked the CGWA to regulate the GW extraction by various users through system of registrations and No Objection Certificate (NOC) and user fees with a limit on quantum of GW to be extracted. In compliance with the NGT orders, the CGWA had circulated the draft guidelines for grant of 'No Objection Certificate' on the 11th October 2017


  15. Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA), constituted under the Environment (Protection) Act of 1986 has the mandate of regulating ground water development and management in the country. CGWA has been regulating ground water development for its sustainable management in the country through measures such as issue of advisories, public notices, grant of No Objection Certificates (NOC) for ground water withdrawal.


  16. . Exemptions Exemption from requirement of NOC has been given to agricultural users, users employing non-energised means to extract water, individual households (using less than 1 inch diameter delivery pipe) and Armed Forces Establishments during operational deployment or during mobilization in forward locations. o Other exemptions (with certain requirements) have been granted to strategic and operational infrastructure projects for Armed Forces, Defence and Paramilitary Forces Establishments and Government water supply agencies in safe and semi critical areas.