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Art & Culture The Gupta Period (Part-6) Presented by: Abhyudaya Kelkar CS and CWA (CMA) Cleared, CA Finalist
Architecture Cave temples continued Ajanta and Pitalkhora near Aurangabad (Maharashtra)continued under Vakataka patronage. Udaygiri Caves near Sanchi are thoroughly created during the Gupta period. Gupta Emperors enlarged the existing stupas. Cave temples to free-standing temples. Brick Temples and Stone Temples and Brick-stone temples. Wooden temples were made but have not survived. Use of terracotta for decorating the exteriors. The first examples of temples in India are from the Gupta period. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Architecture 1. The pre-cursor of Nagara Style (North Indian Temple Architecture) 2. The first temples as 'Devalayas' or 'Abode of Gods'. 3. These contained Garbha-grihas, where idols were placed. Shikharas on the roof. Examples: Dashavtara Temple at Deogarh near Lalitpur in UP. Brick-Stone Temple 4. i) ii) Bhitargaon Temple near Kanpur, the only known thoroughly brick temple. ii) Sirpur Temples near Raipur in Chhattisgarh. iv) Nachna and Bhumra temples near Satna in M.P. v) Temple No.17 at Sanchi : Sandstone Temple, near Vidisha in M.P. 5. These initial temples were never so magnificent or grand to attract attention. They are of archaeological importance only.
Art: Sculpture 1. Inherited substantially from the Kushans. 2. Kushan schools of Art: Gandhara and Mathura 3. Gupta Centre of Arts Mathura and Varanasi 4. Kushan sculptures, particularly Buddhist scultures are 5. 6. 7. examples. Sarnath Buddha and various Bodhisattva images and sculptures of the period. Cave Sculpture at Udayagiri near Sanchi. The image of Varaha and Samudra Manthan. Sculptures on the temple walls. E.g. Vishnu on the walls of Dashavatara Temple of Deogarh. Terracotta Art reached to its maturity and zenith. Many Shilpa-shastras were either used or written. 8. 9.
Art: Painting 1. Cave Paintings. Bagh Caves in Dhar Distt. M.P. 2. Ajanta cave paintings belong to this period. Jataka Stories of Buddha's earlier births and Boddhisattvas. 3. These cave paintings are Fresco paintings. Fresco means preparation of walls by plaster before painting. Fresco versus Mural versus petroglyph. 4. Kalidasa noted following drawing tools: i Shalaka : a kind of pencil for outlining ii) Vartika : The brush used to fill the colours iii) Tulika : the brush to give finishing touches iv) Lamba-Kuruscha : A long Brush v) Colours were known as Varna 5. Base colours for cave paintings: white, red, yellow, black, green and blue from various materials and combination thereof. 6. Fine decorative coins 7. Metalwork of bronze, copper, gold and silver. 8. Extensive use of jewellery.
Art: Music Samudragupta's and Kumaragupta's Coins show them playing Lyre-like instrument, presumably Veena. Bhitari inscription of Skandagupta describes him as 'well versed in different tunes'. Guptas were great patrons of music. The knowledge of music can be categorized in three parts: 1. 2. 3. 4. i) Swaragatam : Knowledge of SevenSwaras ii) Vadyam : Playing instruments ii Samatalam : Knowledge of Rhythmic instruments e.g. Pukharaj (equivalent to Pakhawaj or Mridanga or Dholak) iv) Pushkanagatam: Playing Rhythmic instruments
Art: Literature 1. Sanskrit revived as a liturgical (scriptures), academidc (education and knowledge) and classical (literature) anguage. Kalidasa's plays Abhigyanashakuntalam, Malvikagnimitram, Raghuvamsam, Ritusamhara, Meghadutam, Kumarasambhava, Vikramorvashiyam, etc. Kavyas Poems ; Khanda-kavyas-Minor Poems Samudragupta's Conquests mentioned in Allahabad Pillar are in Champu-kavya style. 2. 3. 4. 5. Script: Gupta Script derived from Brahmi 6. The compilation of the Amarakosha by Amarasimha is memorable work of this period. Amarasimha was a popular personality in the court of Chandragupta ll. Amarkosha is a sanskrit thesaurus (a kind of dictionary)
Art: Literature 7. The Gupta period also saw the development of Sanskrit grammar based on Panini and Patanjali. 8. Buddhist and Jaina literature in Sanskrit were also written during the Gupta period. 9. Buddhist scholars Arya Deva, Arya Asanga and Vasubandhu of the Gupta period were the most notable writers. 10. Siddhasena Divakara laid the foundation of logic among the Jainas. 11. The Gupta age witnessed the evolution of many Prakrit forms such as Suraseni used in Mathura and its vicinity, Ardhamagadhi spoken in Oudh and Bundelkhand, Magadhi in Bihar and Maharashtri in Deccan
Science & Mathematics Aryabhata : Mathematics, Astronomy, Astrology 1. i) Studied solar and lunar eclipses ii) Re-discovered that the earth moves round the sun. iii) Credited with the conceptualization of zero. iv) Aryabhatiya (Mention and calculation of Pi), Arya Siddhanta 2. Varahamihira : Panchasiddhantika (The gist of five existing works on Mathematics and Astronomy). Two of these were foreign : Romaka Siddhanta (from Rome) and Paulisa Siddhanta from Greek Paulisa. Varahamihira Brihatsamhita (Nature and natural phenomena) Varahamihira : Mathematics and Astrology 3. Free to learning from abroad and building upon that. 4. Additions to Algebra 5. Decimal, Zero and Infinity were conceptualized in this period. Indian Number System evolved, which was called 'Hindu Number system, by the Arabs and now known as Hindu-Arabic Number System.
Science & Technology Chemistry Metallurgy 1. Extensive use of iron and steel. Highly advanced in iron technology. E.g. the Mehrauli Pillar in Qutb Complex near Qutb Minar. Standing almost rust-free for more than 16 centuries 2. Ratna pariksha mentioned the science of testing gems. Dhatuveda mentions smelting of metals, Maniragakarjanam mentions technology of jewels.