Part-02 Activity Methods: Project method, problem solving method etc. By Himanshi Singh
7. Heuristic method - Students acquire the knowledge himself by discovering the facts himself in this method. - Problematic situation is raised before students and first comes the hypothesis then the fact. - Pollion and Dankar (1945) called it "problem solving" It is based on the psychological principles of "trial and error" theory Logical and imaginative thinking are perquisites for this type of teaching strategy This method is very suitable to increase the self confidence of pupils.
8. Project Method - In the early 20th Century, William Heard Kilpatrick developed the project method. - This is based on child-centered and on progressive education. In this method, such a work is assigned to do students which is beneficial to them as well as to the society. - Students complete the project by working in a group and acquires practical knowledge. Four classes of Projects: Construction (such as writing a play) -Enjoyment (such as experiencing a concert) Problem (for instance, discussing a complex social problem like poverty), - Specific learning (learning of skills such as swimming).
Some extra points. Difference between heuristic method and this one: -1. group action is needed here to complete the project while pupils work individually in heuristic method - 2. the problem is given in the project is always real while imaginary problems can be given in heuristic method.
9. Discovery Method It is different from heuristic method in the following ways: A. It is used for the facts and concepts related to subjects of social sciences while heuristic method is used to propound new laws and principles of science or to verify them. B. Facts and information is explained here in an objective manner while subjectivity of elaboration is seen in heuristic method. C. Discovery is related to past incidents while heurism is related to present. Example: Discovery Method: "Causes of Aurangzeb's failure in South India". - Heuristic Method: "Causes of low production of milk in Bihar"
10. Problem-Solving Method -A child is given a problem and finds the solution independently, The learner becomes pro-active or independent controller of the situation If problem is simple, it is called problem solving method and If problem is complex and bigger, it becomes project for a learner. Steps in Problem solving: 1. Identify 2. Define 3. Explore 4. Anticipate/Outcomes 5. Look Back and Learn
11. Field Trip or excursion - Field trip or excursions is a journey by students to get direct experience and collect first hand data. -Learning with fun. Suitable for naturalists.
12. Play-way Method According to Frobel, children explore and understand their surrounding through various play-way activities According to him schools should be like play ground for children. - Learning without burden.
13. Montessori Method Invented by Maria Montessori who was a naturalist. - This method is based on self-learning hands on activity and collaborative play. - A teacher provides appropriate activities to children - Her school named 'Children's house - Learning through senses.
14. Dalton Method - The American teacher Helen Parkhurst developed at the beginning of the twentieth century the Dalton Plan to reform the current pedagogic and the then usual manner of classroom management. -She wanted to break the teacher-centered lockstep teaching. - During her first experiment, which she implemented in a small elementary school as a young teacher in 1904, She noticed that when students are given freedom for self-increases considerably and they learn a lot more. - For age group of above 9 years.
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