First Battle of Panipat
First Battle of Panipat The First Battle of Panipat, on 21 April 1526, was fought between the invading forces of Babur and the Lodi Kingdom. It took place in north India and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. This was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery in the Indian subcontinent which were introduced by Mughals in this battle.
Babur Babur-original name Zahir ud-Din Muhammad born-15th February 1483, principality of Fergana died-26th December1530 in Agra. Babur was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, governor of Farghana and great grandson of Timur the Great.
Background of First Battle of Panipat After losing Samarkand for the second time, Babur gave attention to conquer India as he reached the banks of the Chenab in 1519.Until 1524, his aim was to only expand his rule to Punjab, mainly to fulfil his ancestor Timurs legacy since it used to be part of his empire. At the time parts of north India were under the rule of Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty, but the empire was crumbling and there were many defectors. He received invitations from Daulat Khan Lodi, Governor of Punjab and Ala-ud-Din, uncle of Ibrahim.
Background-First Battle of Panipat In 1525 November ,Babur set out in force to seize the empire he sought Crossing the Indus a census of the army revealed his core fighting force numbering 12,000.This number would grow as it joined his garrison in Punjab and some local allies or mercenaries to around 20,000 at Panipat. Entering Sialkot unopposed he moved on to Ambala.
First Battle of Panipat The Delhi sultanate armies had traditionally been based around cavalry. lbrahim Lodi's army at Panipat may be estimated at 50,000 men and 400 war elephants Perhaps 25,000 of these were heavy cavalry predominantly afghan ,rest being feudal levies or mercenaries of less value.
First Battle of Panipat When Ibrahim's army arrived, he found the approach to Babur's army too narrow to attack. While Ibrahim redeployed his forces to allow for the narrower front, Babur quickly took advantage of the situation to flank (tulghuma) the Lodi army.Many of Ibrahim's troops were unable to get into action, and fled when the battle turned against Ibrahim.Faced with musket fire, cannon fire and cavalry attacks from all sides, Ibrahim Lodi fought and died with 6,000 of his remaining troops.
Aftermath Babur's victory led to the end of the delhi sultanate and the establishment of the Mughul dynasty which was to mark an epoch in the history of medieval india
Causes Of Mughal Success Babur's forces had the next generation of weapons technology available in form of cannons and matchlocks. Babur's guns proved decisive in battle, firstly because Ibrahim lacked any field artillery, but also because the sound of the cannon frightened Ibrahim's elephants, causing them to trample his own men
Bibhuti Bhusan Swain
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