In India, the central legislative organ of the union government is called the Parliament. There are two houses or divisions in the Parliament called the Lower House or the Lok Sabha and the Upper House of the Parliament or the Rajya Sabha.
The Lok Sabha stands for the people; therefore, its Parliament is called “The House of People”. Rajya Sabha represents India’s states and the union territories, therefore called “The Council of States”.
Article 79 of the Constitution of India provides the basis for the Parliament. The same article also comprises the President along with the two houses.
The Members of Parliament in India
Members of Parliament in India are the people who serve Parliament. Members of Parliament are elected by the people of India directly.
Articles 79 to 122 discuss the subject of Parliament. Under these articles, the Constitution recognises the Parliament’s organisational, procedural, and compositional aspects. It also explains its duration and power.
Moreover, the parliamentary form acts as a connection between the executive organ and the legislative in the government.
The Functions of the Members of Parliament in India
The Constitution of India has the functions of Parliament written in Chapter II of Part V. Those have several heads listed below:
Features of the Government Formed by the Members of Parliament
Nominal and Real Executives: The real executive is the Prime Minister in the Parliamentary form of government, whereas the nominal executive is the President.
Collective Responsibility: In the Parliamentary democracy, collective responsibility is a fundamental principle. No single person is responsible for managing all tasks. In contrast, all the ministers have to formulate policies, establish progressive acts for the citizens of India and uplift the economic condition.
Majority Party Rule: During the Lok Sabha elections, whichever political party gets the highest seats forms the new government.
The Leadership of the Prime Minister: In the Parliamentary system of government, the leader of the House is the Prime Minister of the country.
Lower House Dissolution: The president can dissolve the Lok Sabha or the Lower House on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Secrecy: The Parliament follows the secrecy principle procedure. It maintains the confidentiality of the policies, proceedings, and decisions.
Political Homogeneity: Generally, members constituting the Council of Ministers are of the same political party, and hence they share a similar political ideology. In the case of a coalition government, the ministers are bound by consensus.
The Functions Performed by Members of Parliament
Reading up on the requests for awards made by different services.
Investigating use caused by different divisions.
Researching instances of defilement.
Beginning around 1983, India has fostered an arrangement of parliamentary standing boards.
There are north of twenty such departmentally related boards of trustees.
Different divisions regulate the Standing Committees — their financial plan, use, and bills that surface in the House identifying with the office.
Amending the basic rulebook of a country from which the government draws its power is called a constitutional amendment. In India, till today, our Constitution has been amended 105 times for various articles added and deleted. In India, we amend our Constitution in three ways.
In the first type of constitutional amendment, each house of parliament can pass the law by a simple majority.
In the second type of constitutional amendment, each house of parliament must pass the law with a special majority.
In the third case, both houses of parliament must pass the law with a special majority, and half of the state assemblies must ratify the law.
Why Did India Adopt the Members of Parliament Form of Government?
Familiarity: The constitution-makers were reasonably familiar with the Parliamentary system as it had been in operation in India during the British colonial rule (modern history legacy).
Responsibility: The Parliamentary system of government clearly outlines the responsible behaviour of the Executive, and the makers of the Constitution prioritised the principle of responsibility on the highest pedestal.
Avoid Conflicts: The framers of the Constitution sought to avoid the conflicts between the executive and legislature which are bound to occur in the Presidential system prevalent in the USA.
Rich Diversity: India is one of the most heterogeneous States and most composite plural societies globally. The Parliamentary system saw the representation of these diversities as more promising.
Parliament’s rule book has many provisions to make smooth office transactions. One of the provisions is setting up parliamentary committees to evaluate the matter.
Members of Parliament resolve issues not discussed in detail in Parliament, and these committees submit their reports to Parliament. In India, there are many matters, such as finance, agriculture, mining, etc. The Members of Parliament are responsible for evaluating them.
Sometimes constitutional amendments may also be referred to these committees to examine the matter in depth. Members of Parliament are the members of both the houses. Hence, the government considers the interests of both houses to resolve the matters.