Skill development refers to identifying the skill gap in a person and ensuring that he or she develops these skills. Skills determine the ability to achieve goals and execute better plans. Keeping this in mind, the Government of India introduced the initiative of ‘Skill India’ in 2015. The main objective was to train over 40 crore Indians in various industry-related jobs. Their vision was clear – to have an empowered workforce by 2022. However, they also could not ignore the various challenges of skill development in India. That is why the outcome is not commensurate with the required growth.
Skill development in India
The Government of India introduced ‘Skill India’ to open various schemes and training courses for the unemployed youth. The mission is to cater to the skill development of the youth in the country through a result-oriented framework. The latter is designed so that it corresponds to the needs of the industry. The best part about Skill India is that it is digitised and allows the youth to enrol either as a trainer or as a candidate.
Components of Skill India’s PMKVY
The main skill development scheme under Skill India is “Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana” (PMKVY). Its main objective is to encourage youth to take up training for a better livelihood. To be precise, it makes them understand the importance of skill development in India. The government covers all the training fees and assessments for this program, and individuals with prior expertise get certificates.
Given below are the main components of PMKVY.
- Short-term training
The unemployed youth and college or school dropouts are trained under this module. They are empowered as per the National Skills Qualification Framework.
Kaushal and Rozgar Mela
This module prompts active participation to foster accountability and transparency.
Recognition of prior learning
Individuals with prior experience access Bridge courses and cater to their knowledge gaps. They also get certificates related to their experience.
- Special projects
This scheme covers the training programs that deviate from the standard framework.
- Monitoring guidelines
This scheme ensures proper monitoring of every centre to maintain the quality of skill development.
This scheme follows strict rules for placement to ensure that the skilled workforce is guided to the right industry in the market.
Objectives of Skill India
We will be discussing the significant objectives of Skill India below.
- To create a workforce empowered with skills, knowledge, and qualifications.
- To help the youth gain access to decent employment opportunities.
- To ensure the country’s competitiveness in the dynamic global market.
- To increase the employability and productivity of the workforce in organised and unorganised sectors.
List of Skill India courses
- The Skill India courses are broadly divided into four major categories.
- Management and development programs
- Training of the trainers
- Entrepreneurship development programs
- Skill development programs
- Others (Strategies for MSMEs, promotion of micro-enterprises, etc.)
Schemes under India’s skill development program
The Government of India has launched the following schemes under the skill development program.
- Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
- Polytechnic Schemes
- Standard Training Assessment and Reward Scheme
- Vocalisation of Education
Benefits of Skill In India
The Indian youth can access better-paying jobs and get a chance to experience a higher standard of living. Moreover, every sector of the Indian economy will experience economic growth with proper development at the grassroots level. A better-trained workforce will help boost the country’s economic growth in the future.
Various challenges of skill development in India
Skill India faces multiple challenges, keeping in view the current policy framework and infrastructure. We will be discussing the various challenges of skill development in India below.
- Insufficient capacity
The current infrastructure facilities available in institutes all over the country are not adequate in proportion to the massive demand for skilled labour. Moreover, there is a lack of highly skilled trainers who can train the workforce.
The Indian people’s outlook regarding skill development programs is still very traditional. One of the most challenging tasks is enrolling students in vocational training and education in institutes.
There is a limited buy-in from the private sector for the Skill India model. In short, it does not get much support from any stakeholders in the country.
- Mismatch of skills
There comes a situation when the skill sets provided by the institutes do not suit the requirements of the employers. As a result, even though the youth are skill trained, they do not get employed.
These are some disadvantages of Skill India that the government needs to cater to in the coming times. They need to motivate and train the faculty to take up higher responsibilities. Moreover, private stakeholders take initiatives to invest in the programs of Skill India. Lastly, it is essential to incorporate industry professionals also in the scheme design of the skill development curriculum.
The government of India has considered skill development one of the most critical aspects of the country’s overall development. Despite the various challenges of skill development in India, the government has worked towards restructuring the policies and initiatives. This is to ensure that the targeted youth are trained with all the necessary skills to get employment in various industries. India’s huge demographic dividend enables a high scope for a skilled workforce in the labour market.
However, it needs a coordinated effort from the government, stakeholders, industries, educational institutes, students, trainees, jobseekers, etc. In short, Skill India needs encouragement from every sector to fulfil the aim that it was introduced.