Use of natural strains of bacteria and other microorganisms for obtaining products beneficial for human beings has been practised for ages like setting curd from milk by using lactobacillus.Here the genome of the organism is not changed. In Biotechnology we obtain genetically modified organisms which produce desired products in less time and in large quantities . Biotechnology can be described as the biological processes undertaken with high technology upon organisms and bacteria for specific purposes or products.
According to Karl Erekry, biotechnology is the implementation of biological processes and the fundamentals of engineering of various fields to develop unfamiliar products from natural resources like food, crops, or vaccines.
The Hungarian engineer Karl Erekry is renowned as the Father of Biotechnology.
Principles of Biotechnology
The principles of biotechnology can be defined as a set of rules or conventions that should be kept in mind while carrying out biological processes with a particular technology.
Biotechnology is generally based on two core techniques-
- Genetic engineering
- Chemical engineering
The basic principle of biotechnology by this process is the modification of organisms to alter their properties and edit their structure by the recombinant DNA technology.
Through genetic engineering, biotechnology is also used in editing the genomes of various organisms or bacteria by inserting, removing, or substituting the splice of a gene through its principles.
The key differences between biotechnology and chemical engineering are the extent of the functioning of their operations. As a result, almost all biotechnology outcomes are excessive on value and moderated on volume.
Biotechnology has raised the latitude of pharmaceuticals to their peak in the present time. This solicitation has turned out to be enormously favourable as it has led to the formation of exceptional products both in terms of
- Value and extent
- Storing and sustaining procedures. For example, enzymes, vaccines, and antibiotics.
Its principles vary in its usage in different fields. It includes several methods that are used to modify the genes of organisms, and its processes vary for different purposes.
There are many types of biotechnologies, such as dark biotechnology, white biotechnology, red biotechnology, yellow biotechnology, etc. The processes and principles vary in each category.
Processes of Biotechnology
In this field first a recombinant DNA is produced and then it is inserted into a competent host. So the processes to get this task accomplished are –
- Isolation of genetic material with the genes of interest
- Purification of the extracted nuclear material
- Cutting of the genetic material with desired genes
- Amplification of the genes of interest
- Insertion of desired genes into the host
- Obtaining the gene product
Biotechnology has existed for a very long time. After the invention of new technologies and equipment, various biotechnology procedures were readily developed. Some of the advanced techniques and their purposes are as follows:
Biotechnology in DNA manipulation
Biotechnology is used to manipulate DNA by processing PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in genomes.
Biotechnology in immobilised enzymes
Biotechnology is used to develop immobilised enzymes, which are further used to diagnose various diseases.
Biotechnology in tissue culture
Biotechnology transfers the fragments of different organisms or plants from their places where life is not possible to other places where they can sustain life and continue functioning.
Biotechnology in protein engineering
The assistance of biotechnology is required in the modification of the protein genome. Nucleotides of protein genes are substituted, eliminated, or inserted to acquire the protein with the required properties.
Biotechnology in cell biology
Cell biology gives biotechnology various procedures and information. For example, biotechnology creates replicas of organisms with altered properties and characteristics, develops the best quality medicines, produces fine-quality food with its original value intact, and more.
Biotechnology in molecular biology
Biotechnology helps in creating pharmaceuticals by understanding the functioning of genes and proteins of molecules within cells, that is, through the tools of molecular biology.
- Biotechnology in immunology
Biotechnology produces bodies that are used to diagnose various diseases. These are included in the development of immunology.
Biotechnology in biochemistry
Biochemistry depends on biotechnology to modify improper metabolisms or chemical processes that occur during its process.
Biotechnology in genetic engineering
At present, biotechnology comprises gears of genetic engineering, which are used to edit or modify genomes and create altered organisms and bacteria.
Bio-engineering maintains the application of biotechnology in medicine, food, technology, and agriculture through its principles and procedures. In addition to that, bio-engineering focuses on converting other or regular technologies into biotechnology.
Contributions of Biotechnology
With its advanced properties and processes, biotechnology has been helping the world steadily. It has been providing uncountable benefits to human society. Some of its significant contributions are:
- The production of humulin
- The recombinant DNA technique
- The test-tube baby or IVF (in-vitro fertilisation) procedure
- DNA vaccines
- The plant tissue culture
- Reducing the immortality rate by curing fatal diseases
- The development of advanced equipment to cure and diagnose diseases efficiently
- Helping in decreasing the use of petrochemicals
- Producing greater crop yields
Biotechnology is interconnected with many other subjects. Therefore, it is an important concept to grasp. We have learned the principles and processes of biotechnology along with the different fields where it is mostly used, its contribution to the world, and some other aspects.
According to The American Chemical Society, biotechnology produces transgenic organisms like bacteria, etc. which are used in the development of important resources such as crops and pharmaceuticals.