The endocarp of various fruits is the woody inner layer of the pericarp that carries the seed, according to botany.

This layer of the pericarp, which directly surrounds the seeds, is the endocarp, which is the deepest layer. Depending on the fruit, this can be extremely hard and non-edible, as in the case of drupes (also known as stone fruits), such as peaches and plums, or it can be membranous and edible, as in the case of citrus fruit, in which the endocarp is divided into segments packed with juicy vesicles. When it comes to some fruits, such as the lychee, the longan, and the pomegranate, the edible section is not produced from the pericarp but rather from the aril, which is the fleshy covering of some seeds that is normally formed from the funiculus.


Progress in genetics and genomics technologies is accelerating the identification of the genes and signalling networks that regulate the differentiation of ovarian tissues into the endocarp, mesocarp, and exocarp. Arabidopsis is the leader in this field, and the information gathered is now being applied to a wide range of other crops. While our present understanding of pericarp tissue differentiation is still limited, it is becoming increasingly clear that the same or very comparable cellular pathways contribute to the differentiation of pericarp tissue in a range of species. The Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, and Solanaceae families are discussed in this paper as well as the recent developments in this developing field of study in these families.

Mechanisms of endocarp fracture in the Cocos nucifera (coconut)

The mechanics of fracture and the links between form, structure, and function were investigated in the hierarchically constructed endocarp of the coconut (Cocos nucifera). A variety of endocarp sample types were mechanically examined, including: (1) the entire endocarp; (2) arch-shaped samples produced from the endocarp, prepared in either an equatorial or a meridional orientation; and (3) tiny endocarp samples. The last-mentioned specimens were evaluated either in their naturally-grown state or having both surfaces ground coplanarly on a flat surface. Samples were either compressed or impact-loaded in a variety of orientations and/or setup combinations, depending on the kind of loading (constrained vs. un-constrained).

The findings demonstrate that (1) the orientation of the entire endocarp has no significant effect on the fracture force, (2) the orientation of arch-shaped samples affects fracture behaviour, whereas (3) test velocity has no significant effect, and (4) the compressive strength of rectangular samples is greatest when applied normal to the endocarp surface is the highest.

The endocarp, on a comparably small scale, is a transversely isotropic material, however on a wider scale, the ellipsoidal shape of the coconut compensates for the weaknesses imposed by the main vascular bundles of the coconut fruit. Coconut shells, as a result, serve as excellent illustrations of how smart material arrangements and designs can be used to mitigate possible drawbacks relating to stability that derive from biological requirements and evolutionary restrictions.

What is Exocarp’s function?

In addition to seed protection and dissemination, the endocarp is critical in the development of the seed by providing nourishment and communication with the growing seed. The funiculus is a structure that connects the seeds to the maternal fruit tissue, serving as an umbilical cord.

The exocarp is the outermost layer of the fruit, and it is this layer that gives the fruit its skin. Each layer serves a distinct function in terms of either protection or dissemination.

The two most important roles of fruit are to keep the seeds from drying out and to spread the seeds once they have been harvested. The fruit can be either meaty or dry depending on the variety. Tomatoes and apples, for example, are fleshy fruits that contain fluids that keep the seeds from drying out until they are fully grown. Moreover, the fleshy fruits aid in the dispersal of the seeds.

endocarp of an orange

The endocarp of the fruit is the section of the fruit that is consumed. In addition to a central fibrous core, distinct segments, segment walls, and an outside membrane are all present. In the segments are juice vesicles, which are also known as juice sacs, which are bound together by a waxy material. It is possible that seeds will be found within the segments.

endocarp of a banana

It is the endocarp and the less developed mesocarp of the banana that are edible. Bananas are berries that emerge from the syncarpous ovaries, which can be multicarpellary or monocarpellary. There are three types of tissues in this fruit: the endocarp (which is membranous and thin), the mesocarp (which is meaty), and the epicarpe (which forms the rind).


Plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family include mustard, cabbage, radish, broccoli, and turnips. Brassicaceae is a family that comprises many commercially important plants. This family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which is also a member of the mustard family. The majority of Brassica species produce a dehiscent pod-like fruit known as a silique (long and narrow) or silicle (short and wide), which contains a unique replum tissue that divides the two valve borders of the plant. A vast number of fruit morphology mutants have been discovered in Arabidopsis through the use of mutagenesis screens. The phenotypes of some of these plants were discovered to be defective in the dehiscence process, and they were designated accordingly: indehiscent (ind), shatterproof (shp), alcatraz (alc), spatula (spt), fruitfull (ful), and replumless (rpl; reviewed by ). Through the identification and cloning of the underlying genes, researchers have gained new insight into the molecular mechanisms of dehiscence as well as the differentiation and lignification of pericarp tissues throughout the development of the fig.


The Solanaceae family also features a diverse range of dry and fleshy fruit varieties that have experienced a number of transitions from berry to capsule and from capsule to berry during the course of their evolution. According to the findings of a rigorous developmental investigation, the early developmental phases of capsular and berry type fruits are very similar. Later developmental phases were characterised by the differentiation of the endocarp, which included changes in cell number, cell growth, and sclerification, among other things.


In conclusion, the endocarp of some fruits is defined as the woody inner layer of the pericarp that carries the seed in botany.

In addition to seed protection and dissemination, the endocarp is critical in the development of the seed by providing nourishment and communication with the growing seed. The funiculus is a structure that connects the seeds to the maternal fruit tissue, serving as an umbilical cord.


Frequently asked questions

Get answers to the most common queries related to the NEET UG Examination Preparation.

What is the difference between an endocarp and an endosperm?

Ans. Endocarp is a woody inner layer of the pericarp of some fruits, which contains the seed, whereas endosperm is a...Read full

What is the composition of the endocarp?

Ans. The endocarp of the fruit is the toughest section of the fruit, and it is composed primarily of fibrous lignin....Read full

Do berries have an endocarp or a pericarp?

Ans. Yes.

What exactly is the coconut endocarp?

Ans. According to botanical terminology, the coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera) is a huge, dry drupe (D) that is compose...Read full

Can we consume the endocarp from a coconut?

Ans. The endocarp is the term used to describe the deepest layer. Coconut water contains a suspension of endosperm a...Read full