Full Form of DNA
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, which is a biological information storage unit. The terminology deoxyribonucleic acid is divided as deoxyribose, which represents the sugar compound, and the nucleic acid, which represents the phosphate group and the nitrogen composed bases. The phosphate and the bases are combined together in the form of a twisted chain which is called a sugar-phosphate backbone. It is found in all living organisms and viruses, which is responsible for the development, growth, reproduction, and functioning of these organisms and viruses. DNA is composed of mainly four nitrogen-composed bases, which are Cytosine, Adenine, Thymine, and Guanine. The bases are categorised into two groups, Pyrimidines and Purines. These bases are alternatively combined in a hydrogen bond enclosed in the sugar-phosphate backbone to form the overall structure of the DNA.
What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is a complex molecular structure that is present in every living organism. It is the essential part of every living organism as it determines the inheritance, development, and growth of every living organism. It is made up of two nucleotides, which are also called Polynucleotides. These Polynucleotides are combined together in the form of a twisted chain that is termed the double helix. DNA carries the genetic instructions for the development as well as the reproduction of several living organisms and viruses. DNA is known to be composed of sugar and phosphate. This composition of DNA is termed the sugar-phosphate backbone. DNA also plays a fundamental role in modern technology, which includes genetic engineering, Bioinformatics, DNA nanotechnology, etc.
DNA as Genetic Material
Type of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Structure of DNA
DNA is made up of a combination of alternatively repeated monomers, which are called nucleotides. The name deoxyribonucleic acid can be divided as deoxyribose, which denotes the sugar compound, and the nucleic acid denotes the phosphate bond and the base pair. The bases are the nitrogen-composed nucleobases, which are connected to each other with a hydrogen bond. DNA consists of four nucleobases, adenine, Cytosine, thymine, and guanine, which are denoted by alphabetical letters, A, C, T, and G. These bases are connected to each other in an alternate pattern, for example, adenine combined with thymine with the hydrogen bond. Similarly, Cytosine combines with guanine with a hydrogen bond. These base pairs are further combined with the sugar-phosphate backbone. The sugar-phosphate backbone is the bonded pair of sugar and phosphate that is present in the form of a twisted chain enclosing the base pairs to form the overall structure of the DNA, i.e., the double helix.
Functions of DNA
- DNA is known as the Genetic Information Storage Unit, which plays a vital role in storing all of the biological information of the organism
- The DNA is responsible for the transmission of the characteristics from the parent to the offspring
- DNA is responsible for the reproduction of the cell as well as the production of proteins
- DNA is the structural unit of a chromosome
- The DNA works as the transmission unit for providing the information or the instructions to the cells for their proper functioning
Application of DNA
DNA is a genetic information storage unit that is an essential part of every living organism. It is composed of several features that are beneficial for modern technology. Several applications of the DNA in the field of science are:
- Genetic Engineering: Genetic engineering deals with the study of recombining or regenerating the structure of the DNA to form a new DNA sequence, which is called recombinant DNA. Genetical engineering is used in the field of medical research as well as in the production of recombinant proteins and agricultural products.
- Bioinformatics: Bioinformatics is a branch of science that studies the phylogenetic relationship as well as the function of the protein. The two aligned DNA sequences are identified for any homologous sequence present to determine the mutation. Bioinformatics is also applied in data mining, machine learning, Database theory, string searching algorithm, etc.
- Phylogeny: DNA plays a vital role in the field of the phylogeny. The DNA structures are the storage unit of genetic information, which can be used for the collection of historical information related to a certain organism.
- Profiling: DNA profiling is mostly used by forensic scientists to determine the identity of a person. In DNA profiling, the blood, skin, saliva, hair, etc., of any individual is matched to determine the identification of that person.
DNA is one of the essential parts of every living organism and virus, which controls their development, growth, functioning, and characteristics identification. The basic structure of DNA is a double Helix, which includes the combined nitrogen bases in a hydrogen bond enclosed within a sugar-phosphate backbone. The nitrogen bases are categorised into two groups, the Pyrimidines, which includes Cytosine and Thymine, and the Purines, which includes Adenine and Guanine. DNA plays an important role in the field of technology and development, for example, DNA profiling, bioinformatics, DNA nanotechnology, genetic engineering, Anthropology, etc.
Interesting Facts about DNA
- 98 to 99% of human beings have Similar DNA.
- The actual size of human DNA is 3 metres(Total length)
- Identical twins have share significant amount of similar DNA
- Each individual carries around 20000 to 25000 genes.The genes make up only about 1-2% of the total DNA.
- There are total 5 types nitrogen bases make up DNA