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Properties of Stress and Strain

Stress and strain are the relative aspects that are associated with a surface. Property of stress and strain is dependent on the force and resultant deformation.

Stress and strain are two relative factors that are associated with the force applied upon a surface. The first relates to the force applied on a surface and strain is the resultant deformation. The reaction of the surface is classified by mechanical properties. However, there are determinant factors associated with the properties of stress and strain upon the surfaces of a product. The mechanical properties play a key role in whether a particular component can bear the application of the loading conditions upon the surface of the product. These two factors determine the strength of the product in a linear motion.

Stress and Strain: definition

Stress is associated with the force that is applied upon the surface of the product divided by the cross-sectional area of the material 𝜎 = F/A0 ; 𝜎 = stress ( N/m2) , F= force , A0 = original cross-sectional area. There are two types of stress one being normal stress, normal stress is the force of restoration per unit area and is imparted perpendicularly unto the body. This stress is further classified into two types: tensile and compressive stress. The other one is tangential; it is the pressure that is imparted onto a surface paralleled thereby causing a deformation. Strain is the resultant deformation or displacement of the product in response to the force as received. 𝜀 = L-L0/L0 ; 𝜀 = strain , L = length after load is applied , L0 = original length. The strain can further be subdivided into three categories, a longitudinal strain that emphasises the deformation in the length of the product and this form of strain can be termed as tensile strain. Volumetric strain defines the type of strain that results in deformity in the volume alone and the last one is shear strain. Shear strain refers to the strain that causes an angular tilt or deformation that alters the shape of the product at a particular angle is called shear strain. These various classifications determine both the property of strain and the property of stress.

Stress and Strain graph

Property of stress and Property of strain and their traits can be assessed by the stress and strain graph, which displays the functionality of the stress and strain upon a product. These two products can be categorised into different regions.
  1. Proportional limit- It is a specific region in the graph that reads “Hooke’s Law”. This limit states that the proportion of stress and strain provides a proper proportion called young modulus.
  2. Elastic Limit- It is the maximum amount of stress a product endures before it attains a deformity.
  3. Yield point- It is at this point that the product begins to show signs of deformation of plastic deformation. It is further subdivided into two categories: upper yield and lower yield points.
  4. Ultimate stress point- It is the maximum amount of stress a material endures before failure and immediately after this point, the product breaks apart.

Properties of stress and strain

Properties of stress and strain are dependent on the factors that display the strength of the product as they are in a linear motion. The property of stress and property of strain display mechanical attributes that are associated with the functionality of the product. The stress that is imparted upon a product perpendicularly is the normal type of stress, tangential stress that is associated with the application of the force parallelly onto the product. The properties of strain are categorized into longitudinal, volumetric and shear strain. In reference to the deformation of the product in terms of length, volume and angle, respectively, their properties of stress and strain cumulatively factor into the decisive deformity of a particular product and its mechanics.


The functionality of a product is dependent upon its shape and size and therefore it is necessary to consider the factors that affect its mechanics and its attributes. The stress and strain as applied upon a product and its associated properties, which are also termed as the mechanical properties, causes the resultant functioning and failure of a product. The properties are further subdivided into various sections depending upon the features of the deformation. These properties of stress and strain can further be studied through a stress and strain graph.

Frequently asked questions

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What are stress and strain?

Answer. Stress and strain are the relative factors that factor into the effect...Read full

What are the properties of stress?

Answer. Stress is the force that is applied to a product, which is categorised...Read full

What are the properties of strain?

Answer. Strain is associated with the resultant deformity of the product due t...Read full

What is a stress-strain graph?

Answer. A stress-strain graph is responsible for displaying the properties of ...Read full