Indian Constitution

This article will provide a comprehensive guide better to understand the salient features of the Indian Constitution and shed light on its Historical Evolution.

The Britishers ruled India from 1857-to 1947. This time was greatly impacted when India planned to become a sovereign democratic country. There was a need for a separate constitution to regulate the laws and implement a social and democratic environment in Indian culture. This need was fulfilled by the all parties conference held in Lucknow, where a strategic development approach was planned to bring a well-defined Indian Constitution into play. This article will discuss all the Historical Evolutions carried out in the Indian Constitution.

Historical events of the Indian Constitution. Let’s have a look at historic reform in the Indian Constitution.

Layered historical Evolution in Indian Constitution

The Indian constitution visited several historical Evolution in different layers. Here is a list of all the layers of historical Evolution in the Indian Constitution:

  • Regulating Act of 1773
  • Pitts Act of 1784
  • Charter Act of 1813
  • Charter Act of 1833
  • Charter act of 1853
  • Government of India Act of 1858
  • Indian Council Act of 1861
  • Indian Council Act of 1892
  • Morley Minto Reforms of 1909
  • Montague-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919
  • Government of India Act of 1935
  • Indian Independence Act of 1935

Detailed Overview of Reforms in each Act

Indian Constitution Regulating Act 1773. It started with Warren Hastings, the governor of Bengal, re-appointed as the governor-general of Bengal. 4 members were selected for the executive council to take necessary decisions. In 1774, the supreme court of Calcutta was established as the most superior court of India. There were reforms like the prohibition of officials from engaging in private trade.

Indian Constitution Pitts Act 1784

It separated commercial and political functions with responsibilities like the board of control managing the political affairs and politics, whereas the court of directors handled the commercial output. Governor councils were getting prepared in Madras and Bombay to speed up the structure process for an independent nation.

Indian Constitution Charter Act 1813

The Indian Constitution Charter Act 1813 brought a change in the industrial capital of India. The British East India Company refrained from its monopoly over the trade market of India. However, the trade sector of Tea and Opium was still there with the British company. 

Indian Constitution Charter Act 1833

This act brought the redesignation of the Governor-general of Bengal to the Governor-general of India with the first appointment of Lord William Bentinck.

The Indian Constitution Charter Act 1833 brought the removal of legislative powers of Bombay and Madras presidencies.

Indian Constitution Charter Act 1853

This brought the separation between the legislative and executive power of the governor-general. It also brought the formation of a six-membered central legislative council. Four out of these six were granted the responsibility by the provisional government of Madras, Agra, Bombay, and Bengal.

Indian Constitution Government of India Act 1858

The 1857 revolution snatched the control and possession of India from the hands of the East India Company, and it fell into the hands of the British Crown without any middleman like the East India Company. It resulted in the appointment of the Secretary of State. There were 15 members of a council appointed to assist the Secretary of State. This act also abolished the board of control and the court of directors.

Indian Constitution Indian Council Act 1861

Three Indians were appointed in the legislative council to represent Indians in the Viceroy council. There were provisions formed to allow the entry of Indians as non-officials in the Viceroy Council. The Madras and Bombay presidencies restored their legislative powers. This act also brought the recognition of the portfolio system. 

Indian Constitution Indian Council Act 1892

The Indian Constitution Indian Council Act 1892 brought a significant change with nominations or indirect elections. Legislative councils were granted more power with the budget discussion and executive questioning.

Morley Minto Reforms 1909

It introduced direct elections in India. The Central legislative council transformed into the Imperial legislative council. This act reduced the count of legislative councils to 16, which were 60 before this reform. The Morley Minto Reforms provided the acceptance of a communal electorate. 

Montague-Chelmsford Reforms 1919

The Montague-Chelmsford reforms brought the separation between central and provisional subjects. It proposed and implemented the nomination of ministers from the elected members of the legislative council. This act made it mandatory that the Viceroy’s executive council should have three members of Indian origin. India’s first public service commission was formed due to this act and provided the right to vote, which almost 10% of the population acquired at that time.

Indian Constitution Government of India Act 1935

This act proposed the idea of an All India Federation consisting of members from British India and princely states. Division of subjects into provincial and central took place. Centre was offered the charge of federal subjects, and Provincial was offered the charge of provincial subjects. A new federal court was established with the abolishment of the Indian Council. The financial institution RBI was introduced with the implementation of this law.

Indian Constitution Indian Independence Act 1947

The day 15 August 1947 is India’s Independence Day. It was declared independent with the sovereign title. The nominal heads status was given to the Viceroy and the governor. The constituent assembly of India was assigned the powers of legislation and execution.


India is a country of diverse and great historical Evolution ever seen for centuries. The historical Evolution of the Indian constitution holds great importance for several reasons, like the rapid development of a nation that was left with no resources, no economy, and a jeopardised state. This article has discussed the layers concept of diversification and acceptance of constitutional evolution.


Frequently asked questions

Get answers to the most common queries related to the CLAT Examination Preparation.

Who is entitled as the father of the Indian Constitution?

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When did the constitution of India come into practice?

Ans. On 26 January 1950, the constitution of India came into practice.

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Ans. 1946 holds great importance behind the salient features of the Indian Constitution as Britain accepted ...Read full