CBSE Class 12 » CBSE Class 12 Study Materials » Physics » What is Electromagnetic spectrum?

# What is Electromagnetic spectrum?

Learn everything about electromagnetic introduction, including the applications, working and induction diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Before we go into the details of the Electromagnetic spectrum, let’s understand what it is. An electric current produces magnetism. Magnetism can prompt the occurrences of electric currents; Electromagnetism is indicated by electromagnetic waves and is considered the fundamental force of nature. Electromagnetism is reflected in terms of radiation and the range of all types of electromagnetic radiation is called the electromagnetic spectrum.

## What is the electromagnetic spectrum?

Radiation is the form of energy that spreads as it travels. There are many types of electromagnetic radiation. The light emitted from an electric lamp or the radio waves from a radio station are the instances and types of electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation occurs within a range. The range of various kinds of electromagnetic radiation is called the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is possible from electromagnetic radiation of other types.

Microwaves, Infrared light, Ultraviolet light, X-rays and Gamma-rays are other types of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic spectrum can be encountered in our daily life in many instances. Some of the Electromagnetic Waves examples experienced in everyday life are microwave ovens, cellular phones, telephones, telegraphs, medical diagnosis purposes, night-vision goggles, cameras, etc.

## Forces that control the universe

Four forces control the working of the universe. They include gravity, electromagnetism, weak nuclear forces and strong nuclear forces. Matter, energy, space and time are related to every action. The four forces control these actions. For example, let us assume an individual is sitting on a chair. The gravitational force holds the individual in place. The material force pushes up in action. The upward push is from the electromagnetic force. Also, gravity’s actions with celestial bodies in their positions help us see those bodies due to electromagnetic radiation (light).

## What is electromagnetism?

Electromagnetic forces occur between the particles which are electrically charged. A physical interaction happens between the particles which are electrically charged. Electromagnetic forces act because there is a combination of magnetic and electrical forces between the particles, which are electrically charged. For example, let us assume the current is moving in a wire. That is, a positive charge is moving in the wire. The magnetic field is formed alongside the wire. Using the Right-hand Rule, we can determine the direction of magnetic lines and force. Many home appliances are working on the principle of Electromagnetism.

## Forces of electromagnetism

To understand the concept of electromagnetism, let’s understand the forces of electromagnetism. According to these forces, there are electric and magnetic fields. They are caused by the particles which are electrically charged. The Electric fields act upon the particles which are electrically charged by pushing them in the electric field direction. Magnetic fields act on the moving charges of the particle. When the magnetic field exists, the force is felt by the moving charge and it works perpendicular to the direction of its velocity.

So when an object is moving towards the magnetic field, the object will feel the force pushing it at the sides. The magnetic field should be in a vertical position. On the other hand, if no other forces exited, the object will move in circular positions.

## Electromagnetic Waves examples in real life

The electric and magnetic fields have their concepts related to the motion of bodies due to the action of forces. Electromagnetic waves can happen even when the electric and magnetic fields oscillate and are interlocked. Basis the electric and magnetic field, the Electromagnetic radiation keeps varying. The electric field, magnetic field and wave propagation direction are aligned so that they are perpendicular to each other. Electromagnetic waves move at the speed of light and even can travel in space. The movement of electromagnetic waves can be understood through the electromagnetic spectrum. All the electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere is included in the electromagnetic spectrum.

Radio waves are used for signal broadcasting through signal inflexion techniques such as frequency modulation amplitude modulation. The signal is transmitted easily when the radio waves travel to the air. The obstacles during the travel do not absorb the waves, so long-distance communication is enabled.

## Microwave Ovens

The high energy in the microwave oven facilitates cooking or heating the meal. The microwaves are reflected on the metal surface inside the oven and are absorbed by the food.

## Medical analysis purpose

Electromagnetic waves are massively used for Medical analysis. X-rays produce an image of the bones and the medical examiner can view the injured bones. The electromagnetic waves facilitate this. MRI uses electromagnetic waves to detect the presence of tumours in the human body.

## Sterilisation

Ultraviolet rays can kill bacteria and hence they are used for sterilisation. When water is exposed to Ultraviolet rays, the germs and bacteria get killed, making the water safe for drinking and sterilising surgical instruments.

## Communication Devices

The electromagnetic waves facilitate the transmission and receiving of information in communication devices like cellular phones, telephones, etc. Cellular communication uses radio waves as electromagnetic waves.

## Conclusion

Electromagnetism is one of the essential concepts of Physics. It explains the self-propagating relationship between the electric and magnetic fields. The particles which are electrically charged interact with each other through the force of Electromagnetism. Interaction between the particles that are electrically charged is also facilitated through the gravitational force; however, Electromagnetism is well known and present in our daily lives.

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