When electrons move randomly through the circuit, and no force field is provided, the velocity of the circuit is zero. Drift force propels electrons across a conductor, and resistance is the force that opposes it. It’s a material’s fundamental property that determines how well it resists current. An occasional resistivity suggests a fabric that readily enables electricity. The law of nature describes the link between current and potential drop. Georg Simon Ohm, a German physicist, was the primary to verify Ohm’s law experimentally. According to Ohm’s law, the current is proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance. However, the law of nature doesn’t apply to all or any materials.

Between two collisions, the electron drifts the wrong way of the electrical field at low velocity and high thermal velocities, earning the moniker drift velocity. The typical velocity achieved by a particle due to the action of an electrical field is known as drift velocity. As the particle’s movement or motion is assumed to be in an exceedingly plane, the axial drift velocity will be employed to characterize it.

**Drift Velocity**

Free electrons flow at every speed and in random directions during a conductor. Randomly moving electrons are subjected to electrical forces along the direction of the electrical field when current is delivered across the conductor. Free electrons will still move randomly across the conductor because of the electrical field, but they’re going to do so with a particular amount of force. Drift velocity is directly proportional to current.

Also, drift velocity is directly proportional to voltage. As a result, drift velocity will be accustomed to explaining the law. The best basic formulation of the law is ud = μ E, where ud is drift velocity, μ is the material’s electron mobility, and E is the field of force. The SI unit of drift velocity is m/s. It’s also measured in m2/(V.s).

Resistivity: The resistivity of a tool logic gate is that the tendency of a tool to resist the flowing current, the SI unit for resistivity is ohm-meter. Resistivity is additionally measured as a unit length over the device’s cross-sectional area. σ = RA/L here R is the device’s resistance, A is an area of cross-section, and L is length. As a result, resistivity is decided by the material’s composition and temperature.

Resistivity tables typically provide values at 20° C or 293.15 K. The resistivity of metallic conductors is directly proportional to temperature, i.e. increases as temperature rises. Still, the resistivity of semiconductors, like carbon and silicon, is inversely proportional to temperature.

**OHM’SLaw**

It states that the current through a perfect resistor at a constant temperature is directly proportional to the voltage applied across the resistor. The constant of proportionality is written as R, which is often the resistor’s resistance value.

V = I·R

Where V is voltage and R is fabric’s resistance.

**Limitations of OHM’S Law**

Ohm’s law doesn’t apply to unilateral electrical elements like diodes and transistors since they only allow current to flow in a way.

E.g. Consider a volt-ammeter for water. It’s an example of a unilateral network, and the law doesn’t apply to them.

Voltage and current won’t be constant with relation to time for nonlinear electrical elements with properties like capacitance, resistance, and so on, making the law of nature problematic to use.

For E.g. The diode is an example that demonstrates the restrictions of Ohm’s law. When a voltage vs current graph for a diode is plotted, it’s clear that the link between voltage and current isn’t linear.

This occurs when the voltage is indicated incorrectly, so the magnitude remains constant. The present is produced within the other way and with a specific law of nature that purely applies to metallic conductors. As a result, it’ll not function with non-metallic conductors.

**Conclusion**

Drift velocity is the net velocity of a particle within the presence of an electrical field. Drift Velocity is directly enthusiastic about voltage and current. Resistivity is the basic property of a cloth how strongly it opposes current. Lower the resistivity higher the possibilities to readily allow current. Ohm’s Law is the relation between voltage and current. Ohm’s Law cannot be applied to certain things.