Algebra of Functions

An algebraic function is one that contains operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as fractional or rational exponents. Learn about various types of functions and their formulae.


A function is a type of relation that is used to produce output by operating on two quantities. It is a relationship between a set of inputs and allowable outputs, with the condition that each input is associated with precisely one output.

An algebraic function is one that contains operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as fractional or rational exponents. Consider an algebraic function to be a machine that accepts real numbers, performs mathematical operations and outputs other numbers.

The integers that go into an algebraic function are referred to as the input, x (domain). A function can take any integer if it is not split by zero or produces a negative square root. As long as the range is one value for each domain utilised, a function can do several mathematical operations with it. The numbers that come out of a function are referred to as the output, y (range). 

Algebraic functions are classified into several categories, including linear, quadratic, cubic, polynomial, rational and radical equations.

Ax + By=C is the conventional form for linear equations in two variables. 2x+3y=5, for example, is a simple linear equation. It is rather simple to get both intercepts when an equation is stated in this way (x and y).

A quadratic function is one of the following: f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, where a, b and c are positive integers and are not equal to zero.

Algebraic Function

Key terms

  • Output: The output of a function is the outcome or response.
  •  Relation: A relation is a link between numbers from one group and numbers from another.
  • Function: A function is a relationship in which each element of the input corresponds to exactly one element of the output.


  •  Functions are a relationship between a set of inputs and outputs that has the condition that each input maps to precisely one output.
  • Functions are often named with a single letter, such as f.
  •  Functions can be compared to a machine in a box with two open ends. You put something at one end of the box, it changes within the box, and the outcome is obtained at the other end.
  • Not all relations are functions, and not all functions are relations.

Algebraic Equation

An algebraic equation has the formula: P = 0

P denotes a polynomial.

For example, x + 8 = 0, where x + 8 is a polynomial, is an algebraic equation. As a result, it is also known as a polynomial equation.

A balanced equation with variables, coefficients and constants is always an algebraic equation.

Types of Algebraic Equations

Algebraic equations include the following:

  • Polynomial Equations

All polynomial equations, like linear equations, are part of algebraic equations. A polynomial equation is an equation that has variables, exponents and coefficients.

ax+b=c linear equations (a not equal to 0). It is also a standard form equation.

  • Quadratic Equations

A quadratic equation is a two-variable polynomial equation of the form f(x) = ax2 + bx + c.

ax2+bx+c=0 is a quadratic equation. (a is greater than or equal to 0)

quadratic function formula is x = −b ± √(b2 − 4ac)/ 2a

  • Cubic Equations

Cubic polynomials are polynomials of degree three. All cubic polynomials are algebraic equations as well.

Cubic Polynomials: ax3+bx2+cx+d = 0.

  • P(x)/Q(x)=0 in rational polynomial equations
  • Trigonometric Equation

All trigonometric equations are regarded as algebraic functions. The expression for a trigonometry equation comprises the trigonometric functions of a variable.

Cos2x = cos2x = 1+4sinx 

The Quadratic Function

  • Quadratic equations are polynomial equations of degree 2 in one variable of the form f(x) = ax2 + bx + c where a, b, c, R and an are all zero. It is the generic form of a quadratic equation in which ‘a’ is referred to as the leading coefficient and ‘c’ is referred to as the absolute term of f. (x). The roots of the quadratic equation (α,β) are the values of x that fulfil the quadratic equation.
  • There will always be two roots to the quadratic equation. The nature of roots might be either genuine or fictitious.
  • When equated to zero, a quadratic polynomial forms a quadratic equation. The roots of the quadratic equation are the values of x that fulfil the equation.
  • In general, ax2 + bx + c = 0

The Formula for a Quadratic Equation

  • The quadratic formula provides the solution or roots of a quadratic equation: (α, β) = [-b ± √(b2 – 4ac)]/2ac
  • The quadratic equation’s roots: x = (-b± √D)/2a, where D = b2 – 4ac
  • Roots’ nature:
  •       D > 0, roots are actual and distinct (unequal)
  •       D = 0 means that the roots are genuine and equal (coincident)
  •       D < 0 roots are fictitious and uneven.

Algebra of Function

  •       Addition of two real functions: f(x) + g(x)
  •       A real function subtracted from another: f(x)- g (x)
  •       Scalar multiplication: a* f (x)
  •       f(x) * g is the multiplication of two real functions (x)
  •       Quotient of two real functions: f(x) / g(x), where g(x) equals zero.


Algebraic identities are algebraic equations that are valid for all possible values of variables in them. They are also used for polynomial factorization. Algebraic identities are therefore employed in the calculation of algebraic expressions and the solution of various polynomials. An algebraic function is a function in mathematics that may be defined as the root of a polynomial equation. Algebraic functions are frequently algebraic expressions with a finite number of terms that use just the algebraic operations addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and raising to a fractional power. An algebraic function’s value at a rational number, and more broadly, at an algebraic number, is always an algebraic number. When polynomial coefficients ai(x) over a ring R are studied, the term “functions algebraic over R” is used.