Introduction to Weather and Climate
Weather and climate are major atmospheric elements on the Earth. Weather can be understood as the temporary atmosphere of any place which lasts for 2-3 months.Whereas, climate is the permanent atmospheric condition of any place. It is permanent, which means it remains constant for 2-3 years. Weather and climate play a significant role in the agriculture conditions, lifestyle and industrial production of any place. They also affect the type of species in that area. However, the herbs, shrubs, trees, and plants that grow in any area also depend on that area’s weather and climate conditions.
Definition of Weather
Weather can be described as the temporary atmospheric condition of a place, which lasts only for 2-3 months. It changes periodically by the effect of the sun’s radiation in a particular area. The differences in the distribution of the sun’s radiation lead to different weathers at different places. For instance, in India, summer, winter, rainy, monsoon and autumn fall in different months.
Definition of Climate
Climate can be described as the permanent atmospheric condition of any place. It remains constant for 2-3 years at any particular place—the interchange of humidity and heat between the Earth and its atmosphere results in the formation of a particluar climate. For instance, the hot climate of the Sahara desert.
Components of Weather and Climate
The components of weather and climate are those phenomena that impact both weather and climatic conditions of any particular area.
Atmospheric temperature can be described as the difference in the air temperature at different parts of the Earth. If the temperature of the Earth is high, it leads to hot climatic conditions in that area, and vice-versa.
Humidity can be described as a water vapour concentration present in the atmosphere. High humidity leads to the rainy season, and low humidity results in fewer rains.
Amount of precipitation
The precipitation is rain, snow, or hail falling in a particular area. Higher precipitation of rain leads to a cold climate, and very little precipitation of rain can lead to a hot climate like the desert.
Air pressure can be described as the pressure generated within the Earth’s atmosphere. This is also called barometric pressure. It also plays a significant role in determining the climate of any area.
Wind speed and direction.
Wind speed depicts the rate at which the air is flowing in a particular area. High wind speeds lead to a hot climate and autumn season. Along with this, the direction in which the air flows also plays an important role in the weather and climate of any area.
Other geographical factors which impact weather and climate are:
- Land and water bodies
The distance of the South and North poles from the equator generates variations in the Climate of the Earth. Due to this, It is further diversified into sub-brackets. The list includes tropical regions, subtropical regions, and also temperate and polar zones. All these places have unique weather conditions. The actual height in terms of distance from the sea level, referred to as “mean sea level,” causes diverse scenarios of weather conditions across the nations.
Variation in weather and climate
Let’s understand some factors which lead to variations in weather and climate:
High and low temperature
Disturbance in temperature is the most crucial reason behind the variations in the weather and climate. As per reports, summer or hot days have gained frequency as compared to winter or cold days. Due to this, the Earth is heating, and its climate is gradually turning hot.
Global warming is the heating phenomenon of Earth due to the consumption of harmful gases like carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Global warming is the major reason behind Earth’s weather and climate change. Use of harmful gases in industries and otherwise, results in the melting of glaciers. Melting glaciers also increase the danger of natural disasters like floods.
Heat Waves occur due to the heavy consumption of harmful chemicals or gases in industries and factories. From 1960, the consumption of these waves has increased three times every year.
Depletion of the ozone layer
The depletion of ozone also plays a significant role in the warming of Earth. Its depletion allows the entry of ultraviolet rays into the Earth. Due to this, its temperature rises day by day.
The cutting of trees at a very high rate is called deforestation. Excessive cutting of trees reduces the level of oxygen in the air, due to which the level of harmful gases increases. It increases the overall temperature of Earth and changes the weather and climate.
Weather and climate are different, yet related concepts. One involves the atmospheric condition and current zone. The other involves the atmospheric condition of a larger area and for a more extended time. Weather and climate are essential aspects of our environment, and a little volatility in it can cause an adverse change and affect that area’s lifestyle. There is a need for more inventions to counter the effects or to be able to avoid the negative impact of harsh weather and climate change.