CBSE Class 11 » CBSE Class 11 Study Materials » Economics » Knowing Consumer’s Budget

Knowing Consumer’s Budget

A customer spending plan is the real buying potential with which the person can buy a bunch of two merchandise, given their costs.

The Consumer Protection Act, carried out in 1986, gives simple and quick remuneration to buyer complaints. It protects and urges purchasers to denounce inadequacy and defects in labour and products. If a merchant and producer practises any unlawful exchange, this act safeguards their freedom as a buyer. We will read about different factors related to consumer budget such as budget set and budget line, price ratio, and the slope of the budget line.

The Protection Act generally covers labour and products of all open, private, or helpful areas, except those excluded by the local government. The demonstration gives a stage to a shopper where they can document their grumbling, and the gathering makes a move against the concerned provider and the pay is conceded to the purchaser for the problem he/she has experienced.

Consumer Budget

A consumer budget is the real purchasing power with which the consumer can purchase quantities of two goods, given their prices.

Budget Set and Budget Line

  • Prices and money income influence a consumer’s choice of amounts to buy between two goods. The cost of a good is calculated by multiplying the price by the amount purchased. There are two goods in our analysis. As a result, the consumer’s expenditure on both commodities must be less than or equal to his or her monetary income. This is the financial constraint that a consumer faces. It is written as:

P1.X1 + P2.X2 ⇐ M

Budget Line

  • The budget line in a consumer budget is a graphical representation of all such bundles that cost the consumer exactly his money income. As a result, the budget line equation is:

P1.X1 + P2.X2 = M

Changes in the Budget Set

A budget set (also known as set of opportunities) includes all possible usage bundles that someone can manage given the cost of commodities and their earning level. The budget line always extends above the amount set. The budget set is formed graphically by all the utilisation bundles that are within and on the budget restriction. The number of bundles available is determined by the price of 2 products and the customer’s earnings. When the price of one of the products or the customer’s profits changes, the available bundles are likely to alter as well.

Buyer Rights and Responsibilities

The Rights of the Consumer are as follows:

  • Right to Safety – Before purchasing, a buyer can demand the quality and assurance of the merchandise. They ought to, in a perfect world, buy a guaranteed item like ISI or AGMARK.
  • Right to Choose – The consumer ought to reserve the option to look over an assortment of merchandise at a cutthroat cost.
  • Right to be educated – The purchasers ought to be educated with every one of the fundamental subtleties of the item, make her/him act savvy, and change the purchasing choice.
  • Right to Consumer Education – Consumers ought to know about his/her freedoms and keep away from double-dealing. Obliviousness can set them back further.
  • Right to be heard – This implies the shopper will stand out enough to be noticed to communicate their complaints at a reasonable gathering.
  • Right to look for pay – The characterises that the purchaser has the privilege to look for review against uncalled for and harsh practices or abuse of the buyer.

The Responsibilities of the Consumer

  • Obligation to know – A customer must be aware of the wellbeing and nature of items and administrations before buying.
  • Obligation to think autonomously – Consumers should be all around worried about what they need and need and hence settle on free decisions.
  • Obligation to stand up –  Buyer ought to be valiant to stand up their complaints and let merchants know what they precisely care about
  • Obligation to whine – It is the customer’s liability to communicate and record an objection about their disappointment with labour and products genuinely and fairly.
  • Obligation to be an Ethical Consumer – They ought to be fair and not draw in themselves with any misleading practices.

How to File a Complaint

  • In two years of buying the item or administrations, the objection ought to be filled. In the protest, the customer should specify the subtleties of the issue. This can be a trade or substitution of the item, remuneration for mental or actual torment. In any case, the revelation should be sensible.
  • Every one of the important receipts and bills ought to be kept and joined to the protest letter. A composed protest should be then shipped off the shopper discussion utilising email, enrolled post, fax or hand-conveyed. Affirmation is significant and ought not to be neglected.
  • The employment of an attorney is not needed.
  • One of the archives sent ought to be kept.


In the above sections, we have read about the consumer budget. Some important concepts of this topic are budget set and budget line, changes in the budget set, and price ratio and the slope of the budget line. According to the definition, a consumer budget is the real purchasing power with which he can purchase quantities of two goods, given their prices. 


Frequently asked questions

Get answers to the most common queries related to the CBSE Class 11 Examination Preparation.

What is a shift in the budget line and when does it happen?

Ans- In certain conditions, the budget line could change in a specific directi...Read full

What are the features of the budget line?

Ans- The following are some of the budget line’s properties: ...Read full

Write down the slope of price ratio and the slope of the budget line.

Ans- M = Px × Qx + Py × Qy Where, ...Read full

What are the different conditions which lead to change in the budget set?

Ans- (i) When the level of income changes ...Read full