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Importance of Statistics in Economics

This article explains the importance of Statistics in business and economics. It also details how data collected (in Statistics) can be used to derive insights and make important plans and decisions.

Statistics is an integral part of Economics and Mathematics. It deals with collecting data pertaining to different subjects and events such as populations, health rates, business, diseases, education, employment, etc. The information is collected through various means such as surveys, polls, or experiments. The experts then apply scientific methods to large sets of data to derive meaningful insights from them.

Such conclusions are largely used to gain a deeper understanding of varied societal problems, including poverty, overpopulation, unemployment, immigration, and several others. The role of statistics in business is also well known. Interestingly, the word ‘Statistics’ is derived from the Latin word, ‘Statis’, which would mean political state.

In the early years of human history, statistics played an instrumental role in the governing of a state or city, and its concepts were widely used by the rulers. However, it is currently being used in a scientific sense, dealing with huge sets of data in various domains.

Importance of Statistics in Economics

This section will explain the importance of statistics in economics. The observations, study, or theories in any field is backed by the quantitative details it carries. For example, if a business organisation considers releasing a new product, it will certainly do a thorough statistical analysis of some factors.

These factors may include customer base, price range offered by the competitors, internal resources, success rate, etc. Without accurate information on these factors, any discussion will fail to produce a meaningful outcome. Such intricate details attest to the importance of Statistics in business.

A similar approach applies to the field of Economics, which is the backbone of any country. In the domain of Economics, various facets are sharply guided by the application of statistical data. The following four areas are a few of the significant among them.

In the Formulation of Economic Theories: 

The base of any theory is speculation. Experts analyse a social situation and come up with multiple assumptions, observations, and possible conclusions. However, for a theory to be proposed, evaluated, and approved, solid and convincing statistical data is paramount.

Hence, Statistics plays a huge role in devising meaningful economic theories in a country. For example, in order to argue that the price of a product does not strictly influence its demand, it is mandatory to back this theory up with suitable data. 

In Conceiving Economic Plans and Execution:

In planning for the betterment of any country or state, the finance experts indulge in the analysis of economic needs and come up with feasible plans to meet them. In this process, they require reliable statistical data to understand the situation, work out suitable plans and also predict the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

For example, let us assume that a board of finance experts takes up the issue of unemployment in India. For them to come up with a workable plan to tackle unemployment, they require data related to the current unemployment rate, reasons for unemployment and organisations that require employees, etc.

With the help of these data, they might be able to back up their ideas for a new economic plan. Statistical data can also be used to assess the success of the plan by comparing the old data with the current one. 

In Understanding the Structure of an Economy:

Apart from aiding in the planning and execution of theories, Statistics also plays a crucial role in helping us understand the structure of any economy. With the help of precise data of domains such as technology, population, geography, resource availability, it is possible to gain an overall understanding of the structure of the economy. With this understanding, it is possible to compare the growth of different countries in factual terms. 

Other areas in which statistics play an important role are consumption, production, exchange, and distribution of goods. Thus, the subsections in this title clearly explain the importance of statistics in economics. The role of statistics in business is also predominant, and the next section goes on to talk about it in detail. 

The Importance of Statistics in Business 

The importance of Statistics in business is an undeniable one. Business Statistics is an indispensable domain where statistical methods are applied in the business surroundings to make valuable decisions.

The role of statistics in business is diverse – from tracking sales numbers to making strategic plans to increase profits. There are some areas in business where statistics are widely used to optimise the process. Let us see them one by one.

Market Research and Analysis

Businesses cannot sustain for a long time if there are no updates to meet ongoing market trends. Hence, to expand a business by launching new products or updating existing ones, the marketing experts perform detailed research using existing data or understand the trends by conducting surveys. 

Enhancing the Efficiency of Business and Decision-Making

The right set of data collected from business operations helps the management evaluate the performance and efficiency of its employees. Such an analysis could help in addressing glaring issues and also in planning effective methods to improve productivity. The importance of Statistics in business may help in setting realistic goals in business, identifying performance gaps, planning advanced training sessions, identifying resource constraints, etc.,

Other tasks that could be achieved through statistical methods are making sharp financial plans, creating new job opportunities, and increasing profit rates. The role of statistics in business is thus understood through these factors. 


To summarise, statistics is a domain of economics that plays a significant role in a wide range of fields such as business, government planning, education, etc., The insights derived from statistical data can be used to identify pressing problems, make impactful decisions, and address many major issues faced by society today. 


Frequently Asked Questions

Get answers to the most common queries related to the CBSE Class 11 Examination Preparation.

Name any two means by which statistical data can be collected.

Ans. Polls, Surveys

Where is the word, Statistics, derived from?

Ans. The word, Statistics, is derived from a Latin word, Statis, which means political state.

Name any three aspects that help understand the structure of an economy.

Ans. Population, Geography, Resource Availability

What is meant by Business Statistics?

Ans. It is a domain in Statistics where proven statistical methods are applied to business data to make meaningful d...Read full