CBSE Class 11 » CBSE Class 11 Study Materials » Economics » Demand and Supply Shift

Demand and Supply Shift

Demand and supply analysis is the study of how buyers and sellers interact to establish transaction prices and quantities. In this topic, we will study Demand shift briefly.

Microeconomics has traditionally divided private economic entities into two categories: consumers (or households) and companies. The theory of the consumer and the theory of the corporation are two branches of research based on these two categories. The consumer theory concerns consumption (desire for goods and services) by utility-maximising persons (those who make decisions to maximise satisfaction from current and future consumption). The firm theory is concerned with profit-maximising enterprises’ provision of goods and services. The consumer and firm theories are crucial because they help us comprehend the underlying principles of demand and supply. The theory of the customer and the theory of the enterprise will be the subject of subsequent readings.

We start with a demand Shift analysis.

  • A variety of variables determines the quantity of goods that customers are willing to buy. 
  • The item’s price is perhaps the most crucial of these considerations. In general, economists assume that as the price of a good rises, buyers will choose to buy less of it, and as the price of a good falls, buyers will choose to buy more of it.
  • This is such a common observation that it has been dubbed “the law of demand,” albeit we will see that it does not apply in every situation.

Although the price of a good is crucial in deciding consumers’ willingness to buy it, other factors such as the consumers’ incomes, tastes and preferences, the pricing of substitutes or complements, and so on, all impact that decision. Economists use a relationship called the demand function to try to capture all of these influences. (A function, in general, is a relationship that assigns a unique value to a dependent variable for any given collection of independent variable values.) Equation 1 represents such a demand function, albeit we will see that it does not have to hold in all cases.

Q d xf = (Px,I,Py)

Changes in Demand vs Movements along the Demand Curve

When the own-price changes, the quantity demanded varies, as we just observed. A shift along the demand shift curve, also known as a change in the amount sought, results only from a change in own price.

Remember that to build the demand curve, we had to keep all variables constant except quantity and own-price. What would happen if your income increased by a certain amount? Assume that household income increased by $10,000 per year to $60,000. The value of Equation 3 thus becomes

Qd x= − 8 4. .- 0.4Px 0 + . . 0.06 (60) 1 − 0.01 (20) = − 1 8. .8-0.4 Px

The new inverse demand function would be Equation 4:

Px= 29.5-2.5Qx

The slope has remained constant, but the intercepts have increased, causing the demand shift curve to shift outward, as seen in Exhibit 2. This assigns a unique value to a dependent variable for any given set of values of a group of independent variables. Equation 1 represents such a demand function, albeit we will see that it does not have to hold in all cases.

  • A change in a good’s price is the only thing that can cause it to shift along the demand curve. Any other variable’s value will shift if it changes.
  • The complete demand curve The former is referred to as a change in quantity demanded, whereas the latter is referred to as a change in supply.
  • The former is referred to as a shift in demand, whereas the latter is referred to as a shift in supply.
  • More importantly, the demand movement was upward and horizontally to the right. That is to say, the household is now, for any given quantity,
  • Willing to pay a higher price; and the household is now willing to pay any price.
  • Purchase a larger amount. Both interpretations of the demand shift are correct.

The Supply Shift Curve and the Supply Function

Generally speaking, Supply shift refers to a person’s willingness and ability to sell a product or service. 

Producers are willing to sell their product at a price that is at least equal to the cost of producing another unit of the product. As a result, the supply function, or desire to supply, is determined by the price at which the good may be sold and the cost of producing an additional unit of the good.

Simultaneous demand and supply shift 

If both supply and demand change simultaneously, this is termed a Simultaneous demand and supply shift. For example, during a conflict, a shortage of products reduces availability, while high employment and total wage payments raise demand. The following diagram depicts the impact of concurrent changes in supply and demand on the price level under various circumstances.


In the above topic, we have learnt about the fundamentals of Demand Shift, Supply Shift and Simultaneous demand and supply shift. The link between the commodity producers want to sell at different costs, and the quantity that customers want to buy is known as supply and demand in economics. It is the most often used model of pricing decisions in economics. The interaction of producers and consumers in a market determines the cost of a commodity.


Frequently asked questions

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What is a supply and demand change, and how does it happen?

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What variables cause the supply curve to shift?

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Define Demand.

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