CBSE Class 11 » CBSE Class 11 Study Materials » Economics » Consumer’s Equilibrium

Consumer’s Equilibrium

Confused about Consumer’s Equilibrium in Economics? Here is the complete guide to your problem, which will teach you from scratch and take you to another level.

What do you mean by Consumer’s Equilibrium?

If you say that someone is in the state of Consumer Equilibrium, it means that the person is stagnant with his situation, and it can’t be changed by earning, spending, or changing the number of goods. Being a rational consumer, you will buy the products only when the cost of the good is equal to the marginal utility.

If someone fails to meet the above criteria, then there’s only two ways for him to get out of this situation.

  • The consumer will buy more, the MU level will degrade, and at some point in time, the marginal utility will be more than the paid price. 
  • The other case is to prevent dissatisfaction. There is a possibility that the consumer will buy less than earlier, which will lead to an increase in MU until the price becomes equal to the marginal utility.

On the other hand, it might be the case that the price paid is less than the marginal utility. In this case, the person will enjoy the additional benefits. The additional benefits would provoke buying more products, which will lead to a decrease in the MU until it would be equal to the price. Therefore, at some point in time when the consumer will buy more or less product, there will be the case when P=MU. 

Importance of Consumer’s Equilibrium

  • To increase the utility for the consumption of goods as compared to before. 
  • This helps to organise two or more products based on the taste and preference of the consumer to maximise the utility. 

Assumptions for Consumer’s Equilibrium for Single Commodity

You could assume that.

  • There would be only the purchase of a single product.
  • The customer only has to decide the number of products to buy at the given price, if the cost of the product is already known. 
  • Consumer expenditure knows no bounds. This means the consumer can make a purchase of the product at any cost without any limitation. 

Assumptions for Consumer’s Equilibrium for two or more Commodities:

In this case, you could assume that. 

  • There are only two goods for sale, i.e., A and B. 
  • The price of both A and B is already known to you. The person could decide about the number of products to be bought. The cost of the product can’t be changed because of that person. 
  • You already have the knowledge of how much money you’re going to spend on that particular product. 
  • Keeping in mind the constraints of goods, a rational person will try to maximise the amount of utility of the product purchased. 

Conditions for Consumer’s Equilibrium for Single Commodity

When you are dealing with a single commodity, then the law of Diminishing Marginal Utility comes into action. 

Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility

This law states that as a person consumes more products, the marginal utility decreases with each successive unit. Thus, there are two factors on which the amount of items to be purchased depends:

  • The given cost of each unit.
  • The utility provided to them. 

Whenever you are buying something, the customer usually compares its price with its utility. If the amount of money paid for the product, say X becomes equal to the marginal utility, then the consumer is said to be in an equilibrium state.

The equation for Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility would be.


This condition will further provide you with two cases.

  1. If MUx>Px:
  2. If MUx<Px:

Conditions for Consumer’s Equilibrium for Two or more Commodities:

Whenever you are dealing with two or more products, then the law of Marginal Utility is not valid. If you look into practical life, you will find out that a person consumes more than one product. This is why it follows the law of Equity Marginal Utility.

Law of Equity Marginal Utility

To attain maximum satisfaction, the consumer should spend his last rupee on the products which provide him with equal marginality.

According to this law, there will be a consumer’s equilibrium when the ratio between marginal utility and price of one product is equal to the marginal utility and price of another product.

Example of Law of Equity Marginal Utility:

Consider two products, A and B. The equation will be.


If there are three products like X, Y, and Z. If you need to attain equilibrium, then there are two options available. 

  1. At the last product, the marginal utility of the last rupee spent is always the same.
  2. As the consumers consume more and more commodities, there’s a decrease in marginal utility. 


If you want to learn about consumers’ equilibrium in detail, then you have landed on the right page. You will get to know everything right from consumer’s equilibrium to consumer’s equilibrium for a different amount of goods to condition for consumer’s equilibrium for a different amount of goods to the Law of Diminishing Marginality.

This will equip you with the necessary weapons for these topics. In a nutshell, you can say that this is the condition when a consumer has a fixed income and enjoys maximum satisfaction without being able to change his state of condition.


Frequently asked questions

Get answers to the most common queries related to the CBSE Class 11 Examination Preparation.

Explain the phenomena of Consumer Equilibrium.

Ans: This is a state of condition when there’s maximum derived utility of a consumer at a giv...Read full

What do you mean Utility?

Ans: When goods satisfy your demands, it’s known as utility. Greater is the utility for those...Read full

Explain the term marginal utility?

Ans: Whenever you consume one additional amount of a product, the change in the total utility is kn...Read full

Explain the term total utility?

Ans: Whenever you consume a specific product which satisfies you completely, that is known as the t...Read full