Profit is a vital component to understand gains and is used in businesses to know how well it is doing in terms of revenue

A business needs to assess the net profit from the sales of products or services from financial transactions. The common business term used to calculate the gain is profit. Mathematically, it is defined as the amount gained from business. When the selling price of a product or service is higher than the cost price, the business earns a profit from the product. The concept of profit and loss helps calculate the financial statement for any company and understand the overall performance. The profit formula helps determine terms like gross profit and net profit become crucial for financial transactions.

What is Profit and its Use? 

It is crucial to know what is profit and how it is used to create a company’s financial statements such as Balance Sheet, P &L, Cash Flow statements etc. When the selling price is higher than the cost price in a transaction, the difference between selling and cost price is profit. It helps describe the financial benefit obtained when the overall revenue from business exceeds taxes, expenses and other operations.

  • It helps identify the business outcome and if the company is performing well or gaining revenue
  • Profit contributes to the capital of companies for using it to expand the business and use it for various purposes like operation, workplace equipment, and making upgrades
  • Higher profits mean the business is doing well and is an indicator of growth

Profit Formula and its Calculation 

Before using the profit formula, it is necessary to understand a few terms that help calculate the total profit.

  • Cost Price is defined as the cost at which the product was made and is represented as CP
  • Selling Price – The price at which a product is sold to the buyer is known as the selling price and is represented as SP

The formula used for calculating profit is:

Profit = Selling Price – Cost Price(Cost of Goods sold)

What are the Steps to Calculate the Profit Percentage?

Profit is usually calculated and described as a profit percentage. Here are the steps which are used for the calculation of profit percentage:

  • The first step is to identify the overall cost price of products
  • The second step is determining and finding the total selling price of sold products
  • The profit amount is calculated by subtracting the cost price from the selling price
  • Dividing the profit amount with the cost price helps in determining the profit margin

After the calculation, the profit percentage is calculated by the given profit formula:

Profit % = (P/CP) X 100

Where P% = Profit percentage

P = Profit

CP = Cost Price

Let’s understand the same with the help of an example:

Suppose Mr X bought a flower for Rs 200 and sold it at Rs 250. Is the transaction profitable, and what is the total profit amount?

CP = Rs 200

SP = Rs 250

Hence, it can be seen that SP > CP

Profit = 250 – 200 = Rs 50

As the selling price is more than the cost price, there is a gain of Rs 50.

Other important formulas related to profit are:

Selling price (SP) = {(100+P%/100)} × CP

Cost price (CP) = {(100/100+P%)} × SP

Types of Profit and its Uses in Business 

There are different types of profit, and it is based on the transactions and the bulk of the business. Here are the types:

Gross Profit

  • A business or person gains the total profit after removing the associated cost of selling and marketing a product from the selling price
  • It helps evaluate the business’s ability to profit while handling its production, operation, and labour costs
  • Here is the formula:

Gross profit = Revenue – Cost of sold goods

Net Profit 

  • The net profit is the overall gain of a company after operating cost, interest, taxes, depreciation etc., all have been subtracted from total revenues
  • Simply put, it is the company’s revenue after subtracting all the expenses
  • Net profit is one of the most important requirements for a financial statement
  • It is the actual sum made by the company
  • When the net profit is high, the company has high and continued growth
  • The net profit formula used for the same is:

Net Profit = Operating profit – (Taxes and Interest)

Operating Profit 

  • The operating profit is the ratio of operating income and sales revenue
  • It is the role of the company’s operations to its profitability
  • Formula used for calculation is: 

Operating profit = Gross profit – Operating expenses


The article helps understand what is profit, its various types, and how the profit formula can be used to calculate profit. It is an essential component in preparing financial statements and understanding how the business performs. The outcome is to know how the profit formula is applied along with the concept of selling price and cost price. It helps to understand the company’s valuation and calculate the overall gains made by a business. For large transactions, it is calculated as net and gross profit.


Frequently Asked Questions

Get answers to the most common queries related to the K-12 Examination Preparation.

What is profit and its importance in a business?

Answer: Profit is basically when the selling price is more than the cost price. It is one of the most importa...Read full

What is the difference between net profit, gross profit, and operating profit?

Answer: The net profit is the total revenue gained by a company by subtracting all expenses like taxes, operation co...Read full

What is the profit formula and its calculation in percentage?

Answer: The calculation for profit is used by putting the formula:...Read full

How is profit defined mathematically?

Answer: Mathematically, it is defined by using two terms which are selling price and cost price. The amount paid for...Read full