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# Algebra of functions, rational and trigonometric

Here in the below content, we aim to describe what function is in mathematics and its types, including Algebra of differentiable functions, rational functions, and trigonometric ratios.

Distinct types of functions in mathematics have different qualities that separate them. As a result, knowing what kind of function you’re working on is important.

Functions are classed as algebraic or non-algebraic; algebra of differentiable functions and rational functions are classified as algebraic, whereas trigonometric functions are classified as non-algebraic. Continue reading to get a quick overview of each one.

## What is Function?

In mathematics, a function refers to a relation between a set of inputs and a set of allowable outputs. The feature of functions is that each input corresponds to exactly one output. Functions are usually named with a single letter, such as “ f ”.

Functions can be compared to a machine in a box with two open ends. You put something in one end of the box, it changes inside the box      and the result emerges from the other end.

Note: Not all relations are functions and not all functions are relations.

### Algebraic functions

• Algebra of Functions

Functions can be multiplied, split and added to these techniques are known as “Operations of functions” or “algebra of differentiable functions.”

Certain arithmetic operations can be applied to both functions (and no division by zero occurs) when the domains of two functions are the same.

The intersection (∩) of the domains of functions will be the domain for the functions f (x) and g(x). Essentially, you have to determine where the domains intersect.

*To avoid a division by zero problems, an additional restriction for the domain of (f / g)(x) specifies that g(x) cannot equal 0.

For example:

Given f (x) = 5x + 1 and g (x) = 3x – 2.
Express (f + g)(x);     (f – g)(x);  (f • g)(x); (f / g)(x)
State the domain of each.

Solution:
(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) = (5x + 1) + (3x – 2) = 8x – 1
Domain: D(f ) = Reals and D(g) = Reals, so D(f + g) = D(f ) ∩ D(g) = Reals

(f – g)(x) = f (x) – g(x) = (5x + 1) – (3x – 2) = 2x + 3
Domain: D(f ) = Reals and D(g) = Reals, so D(f + g) = D(f ) ∩ D(g) = Reals

(f • g)(x) = f (x) • g(x) = (5x + 1) • (3x – 2) = 15×2 – 7x – 2
Domain: D(f ) = Reals and D(g) = Reals, so D(f + g) = D(f ) ∩ D(g) = Reals, but not x = 2/3

(The x = 2/3 creates a zero-denominator problem with division by g(x).)

• Rational functions

These are referred to as one that can be expressed as the product of two polynomials. The function is a polynomial if the denominator is an integer (a polynomial of degree 0). Polynomial functions, on the other hand, are rational functions. The constant term in the denominator is commonly set to 1 when fitting rational function models.

The ratios of the numerator and denominator are commonly used to identify rational functions. A quadratic/cubic rational function is defined as a numerator with a quadratic and a denominator with a cubic.

The word “rational polynomial” is frequently used interchangeably with “rational function.” This usage is unacceptable, as rational polynomial should properly refer to a polynomial having rational coefficients, as it does for complex and integer polynomials.

Besides poles in the expanded complex plane, a rational function has no singularities. If a single-valued function has no singularities other than poles in the expanded complex plane, it is a rational function. A rational function can also be broken down into partial fractions.

#### General features of rational numbers

• The horizontal position of the function is y=an/bm if the numerator and denominator are of the same degree (n=m).
• When the denominator’s degree is greater than the numerator’s degree, y=0 is a horizontal asymptote.
• There is no horizontal position if the denominator’s degree is less than the numerator’s degree.
• In the case of a zero denominator, there is a vertical asymptote when x equals a root of the denominator polynomial. The only exception is when the denominator’s root is also the numerator’s root.

### Non-algebraic functions

• Trigonometric ratios

The fundamental six trigonometric functions have a domain input value: an angle of a right triangle and a numeric answer that is the range. The domain of the trigonometric ratios f(x) = sin (commonly known as the ‘trig function’) is the angle represented in degrees or radians, and the range is [-1, 1]. Similarly, all other functions have a domain and range. Calculus, geometry, and algebra all make heavy use of trigonometric ratios.

The six main values of trigonometric functions are depicted in the table below:

 Abbreviation Function cos θ cosine sin θ sine tan θ tangent sec θ secant csc θ cosecant cot θ cotangent

These values of trigonometric functions can be described as ratios between the sides of a right triangle for acute angles. The reciprocals of the cos., sin., and tan. functions are the sec., cosec., and cot. Functions. Second, the cosine and sine functions are not undefined for any value. This is because r is the distance between the origin and the terminating ray point (x, y) (0,0).

The distance between a point and the origin is always positive; however, the x and y coordinates might have positive or negative signs. All six trigonometric ratios have positive values in the first quadrant, where all x and y coordinates are positive. Sine, cosecant (the reciprocal of sine) is positive in the 2nd quadrant, and tangent cotangent is positive in the 3rd quadrant. Finally, only cosine and secant are positive in the fourth quadrant.

### Conclusion

A function relates elements in a set (the domain) to elements in another set (the codomain). The range refers to all outputs (the actual values associated with them). The various combinations of ranges and angle’s standard positions result in multiple functions.

Get answers to the most common queries related to the CA Foundation Examination Preparation.

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