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Traders, Kings and Pilgrims
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This is Mercantile era when silk route flourished and led to the prosperity in the country. Many pilgrims came to our country to explore their religion.

Abhishek Srivastava is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Abhishek Srivastava
GS faculty and subject matter expert | 4 yrs Teaching Exp.| HiStory, Geog. and Polity courses with interrelation, logic & chronology.

Unacademy user
Very useful...thank u Sr
why are buddhist caves mostly on western Ghats.. please answer
Gandhara School of art - Theme is mainly Buddhist, depicting various stories from the life of Buddha. Also, more stress is given to the bodily features and external beaty. Sculptures were made initially on stone and later on Stucco, both grey in color. This school is influenced by Greeco-Roman techniques to a greater extent. One of the reason is definitely the geographical location of the school. Gandhara school was heavily influenced by Greek methodologies, the figures were more spiritual and sculpted mainly in grey, and great detail was paid to exact depiction of body parts. Mathura school of art - Theme may vary from Buddhist to Brahmanical to sometimes secular. More stress is given to the inner beauty and facial emotions rather than bodily gesture. Sculptures were made on White-spotted red stones. These were not influenced by Greeco-Roman techniques to that extent. Several Brahmanical Dieties were first crystallized by this school. For the Mathura school, the material was red sandstone, and they were depicted as more human and less spiritual. It was wholly influenced by Indian sculptures.
Thanx bro for quick revision.....:p
In Ghandara - Buddha was depicted in standing position by the statue In Mathura - Contrast to Statue in Gandhara Buddha was depicted in sitting position There should be Reasons?
Most of the caityas were excavated during the peak of long-distance maritime trade between western india and Egypt and Rome during the first to fourth centuries CE, when the satavahanas and western Ksatrapas vied for control of the inland routes. However, merchants, artisans, male householders, female donors and monks and nuns made significantly more donations than royal patrons to residential Buddhist monasteries. While donations were made by local inhabitants, inscriptions record many gifts by donors who had travelled long distances across the western Deccan to caityas located on the coast (such as Kanheri) or near passes through the Western Ghats. According to D.D. Kosambi , the fortunes of the Buddhist monasteries clustered on trade routes fluctuated with changing economic patterns Kosambi also proposed that many Buddhist monasteries may have established near junctions of trade routes in order to supplant blood sacrifices to local mother goddesses at important crossroads.

  2. Abhishek Srivastava ABOUT ME: Qualified IIT JEE 2006 . Indian maritime University, Kolkata Marine Engineer Qualified for UPSC mains twice Got selected in SSC and IBPS twice . GS faculty

  3. Previously.

  4. Villagers At least three kind of people . In tamil (rom sangam) Vellalar (large landowners) Uzhavar ( ordinery ploughmen) -Kadaisiyar and Adimai (landless laboureres including slaves)

  5. Cities stories /travellers/sculpture/archeology Stories . Sculpture Jatakas -scenes depicting peoples Composed by ordinery people Written by Buddhist monk *clever poor man life in cities/villages/forest -Used to decorate buildings pillarsrailings gateways

  6. Before Christ(B.C 2mn 100001 80001 6000 4000 900 later 800 vedic 700 era Neolithic 3700 3600 2700 PALEOUTHIC Meso lithic 2500 Indus 500 Mahajanapada 1400 MAURYAS 3300 3200 3100 2300 iviliza1300Riedic 300 200 100 Dark Age 1200 era 2100 we are here! 2100 1100 400 Guptas 1400 2400 600 Harsha V1600 700 Prophet 1700 1000 Anno Domio (AD.)

  7. How to find about trade and traders NBPW found at several sites throughout the continent..crried by traders South India -Gold -Spices . Pepper called Black gold in Roman empire Precious stones Traded by ships and carvan (lands)

  8. Lots of Roman gold coins found in South India . Mentioned in Sangam poems Several sea routes Along the coast Crossed Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal (monsoon) . Required strong ships

  9. New kingdoms along the coast . South India South India Long coastline Satavahana empire - Hills & plateaus Maha-Megha-Vahana empire river valleys..kaveri basin most fertile Kongu Chola Kings controlling them Chera became rich and powerful Pandya Ay Ruhunas

  10. .Muvendar - In Sangam text Satavahana empire Meaning three chiefs -Refers to heads of three ruling Maha-Megha-Vahana empire families Kongu . Cholas Chola Cheryas Chera Pandyas Pandvas Pandya Became powerful in 300 BC Ay Ruhunas

  11. SOGDIANA FERGHANAO Satavahanas (100 AD) became popular -Gautamiputra Shri satkarini ACTNIA PAMIR HINDU KUSH GANDHAKA ARACHOSIA KUSHAN EMPIRE uti . Inscription by Gautami Balashri eRosu Were called lords of Dakshinapatha Sent his army for southern western and eastern conquests.. GEDROSIA WESTERN Vidisa GATRAPS Baryge Kundina Champa SATAVAHANA EMPIRE Amaravati PANDYAN CHOLAS KINGDOM CHOLAS

  12. Kanishka...organised a Buddhist Council . Scholar meeting for discussions They had started writing in Sanskrit . Ashvaghosh Poet in his court Wrote Buddhas biography Buddhacharitra

  13. Gandhara school Mathura school

  14. Buddhism also spread to southern and western India Dozens of caves were hollowed out for mon Made on the orders of kings and queens,merchants and farmers Often near passes of Western Ghats...why?

  15. Buddhism also spread South East to Sri Lanka Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia etc.. Theravada Buddhism (earlier form ) more popular here ITALY CASPIAN SEA GRECE BASIN O Petra CHINA GREEKS YTBIANS BUDDHISM ARABIA 30SATRAPS Mera.. AVA AETHIOPIA CYENEUM AFRICA AZANIA ERYTHRAEAN SEA INDIAN OCEAN) LEGEND EXTENT OF BUDDHISM AND TRADE ROUTES in the 1st century CE COUNTRIES

  16. a poem by Bhakta .. Riches learning and high status do not guarantee close relation with deity Composed in Tamil by Appar, who was vellala (devotee of Shiva)

  17. Christianity . After 1 AD christianity emerged in West Asia Jesus Christ was born in Bethlehem ,part of Roman empire . Christ teachings were that he was the saviour of the world . Spread love . Christians of Kerala called Syrian Christians came from West Asia

  18. Next.. New empires and Kingdom...a.