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THE REVOLT OF 1857, 1.5 CAUSES OF FAILURE OF REVOLT Presented by Roman Saini Follow me on Unacademy https://unacademv.in/user/RomanSaini
BACKGROUND Reason of Revolt? Support base of the revolt? Planning? Their main ideology? Co-ordination Effective centralised Leadership? and co-operation?
BACKGROUND Reason of Revolt? Support base of the revolt? Planning? Their main ideology? Co-ordination and co-operation Effective centralised Leadership? LACKiNG
BACKGROUND Everyone was harbouring a grudge against someone or the other Lack of clear enemy Almost nil understanding of the colonial rule Peasants considered moneylenders and zamindars as their enemies, who in turn, were fighting British! Rulers and aristocracy (Nana Saheb) were furious with British because their rights, lands, money etc. were usurped But as soon as the land was promised to landlords and titles to princes, they changed the sides Money lender also thought there business was much safer under EIC patronage
CAUSES OF FAILURE OF REVOLT >Territorial spread: It was not an All-India movement, limited to certain regions -Southern India remain completely unaffected: Western and Eastern India also did not saw much activity, as far as revolt is concerned > Less than 25% of land area and less than 10% of population was affected or involved in the revolt Neutral/Supporters of British included: Jodhpur, Rajputana in general; Nizam (Hyderabad); Punjab Sikh leaders (Patiala, Kapurthala), Scindias (Gwalior), Holkar (Indore) etc. Opposition 50% of Indian soldiers rather than supporting the revolt, fought from the side of the Britishers to crush it. For ex: Delhi was reclaimed by Britishers with the help of 4900 soldiers, out of which roughly 2/3rd were Indians!
Indian States during Revolt of 1857 rebelion States in States loyal to British with army in States alding the Brtish British areas affected by rebeilion Neutral States Extent of Briaish Territories ASSAM SND
CAUSES OF FAILURE OF REVOLT Lack of unifying leadership: Bahadur Shah II was proclaimed Shahenshah-e-Hindustan, but he was old, frail, weakest link, depended on British pension and carried only the name of Mughals. Local leaders like Nana Saheb, Tantia Tope, Laxmi Bai, though fought bravely, but could not compete with their British counterparts, when it comes to mass n of their troops and displaying effective leadership. >Communication and Coordination Electric Telegraph lines with Britishers; Twin benefits They can organise and mobilise their troops much faster They can keep an eye on the m one step ahead in the game ovement of rebels and plan in anticipation, staying
CAUSES OF FAILURE OF REVOLT Equipments: Indian soldiers, by and large, used swords, pikes and spears to fight, may be a few guns or muskets, which were not part of advanced technology; European soldiers had better training, were more organised and used latest weapons like Enfield rifle (Enfield is a place near London, where British Ordnance Factory was located) > It was introduced in 1853 and was sent to EIC very early, rifling gave much higher accuracy and range Earlier they used Brown Bess smooth-bore flintlock musket
CAUSES OF FAILURE OF REVOLT Recapturing of Delhi by Britishers: 20th September, 1857: Delhi was recaptured. It was the centre stage and hence, the nerve centre of the revolt was crushed. Blowing of Kashmere Khizr Sultan) and grandson (Mirza Abu Bakht), on a point blank range by Hudson at Khooni/Kabuli Darwaza and then keeping their dead bodies in front of Kotwali for a public display, his deporting off to Rangoon, psychological defeat > Blowing of Kashmere Gate, shooting of BS-II's sons (Mirza Mughal and Mirza Sepoys: Lack of discipline, what to do if they won, they were not clear on that, zero understanding of phenomena of colonialism