The Angelo- Mysore Wars Ashish Thakur
Mysore Mysore (or Mysuru), a city in India's southwestern Karnataka state, was the capital of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1947.
Hyder Ali The state of Mysore rose to prominence in the politics of South India under the leadership of Hyder Ali. In 1761 he became the de facto ruler of Mysore.
Events In Background The war of successions in Karnataka and Haiderabad, the conflict of the English and the French in the South and the defeat of the Marathas in the Third battle of Panipat (1761) helped him in attending and consolidating the territory of Mysore.
Hyder Ali was defeated by Maratha Peshwa Madhav Rao in 1764 and forced to sign a treaty in 1765
Tipu Sultan Tipu Sultan succeeded Hyder Ali in 1785 and fought against British in Ill and IV Mysore wars. He brought great changes in the administrative system. He introduced modern industries by bringina foreign experts and extending state support to many industries
He sent his ambassadors to many countries for establishing foreign trade links. He introduced new system of coinage, new scales of weight and new calendar. Tipu Sultan organized the infantry on the European lines and tried to build the modern navy. Planted a 'tree of liberty' at Srirangapatnam and became a member of the Jacobin Club
The First Angelo- Mysore War (1767-69)
Cause The main causes of this war were Haider's ambition to drive the British away from the Carnatic and finally from India and the British realization of the threat posed to them by him.
Enemy A tripartite alliance was formed against Hyder by the British, the Nizam and the Marathas.
Treaty of Madras-1769 The panic-stricken Madras government concluded the humiliating Treaty of Madras in 1769 on the basis of mutual restitution of each other's territories and a defensive alliance between the two parties committing the English to help Hyder Ali in case he was attacked by another power It was signed by Hyder Ali and the allies consisting of the Company, the Raja of Tanjore, and the Malabar ruler.
Rivals in War He arranged a joint front with the Nizam and the Marathas against the common enemy -the English East India Company. The war lasted from 1780-1784.
Treaty of Mangalore Both sides agreed to a mutual restoration of possessions (barring the forts of Amboorgur and Satgur) and Tipu undertook not to make any claims on the Carnatic in future. Tipu agreed to release all prisoners of war and he had to restore the factory and privileges possessed by the Company at Calicut until 1779.
The Third Angelo Mysore War 1789-1792
What Happened War between Tipu Sultan and British began in 1789 and ended in Tipu's defeat in 1792. Even though Tipu fought with exemplary bravery, Lord Cornwallis the Governor General had succeeded through shrewd diplomacy in isolating him by wining over the Marathas, the Nizam and the rulers of Travancore and Coorg.
Tipu's Defeat The main army under General Harris supported by Nizam's subsidiary force under Arthur Wellesley attacked Mysore from the east while another army advanced from Bombay. Tipu was at first defeated by the Bombay army and was later on defeated by the General Harris at Mallavalli. Tipu died fighting bravely
End of Mysore Thus, the fourth Mysore War destroyed the state of Mysore which was ruled by Hyder Ali 33 years.
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