Gupta Empire Gupta Empire, 320-550 CE aly of Guptas) Ashish Thkaur KADAME
The Rise and Growth of the Gupta Empire After the fall of Mauryan empire, the Kushans in the North and Satavahanas in the south had held power. Gupta empire replaced the Kushans in the North with its center of power at Prayag and gave politicial unity for more than a century (335AD-455AD) Gupta strength laid in the use of horses and material advantage of fertile land and natural resources abundant region.
Founder It was founded by Sri Gupta. -The Gupta Period from 320 AD to 550 AD is also known as the Golden Age of India. Gupta Empire, 320-550 CE
Shrigupta and Ghatotkach:a The reign of Maharaja Shrigupta (240 AD to 280 AD) is considered by many historians to be the starting point of Gupta Empire. Ghatotkacha succeeded his father Shrigupta and ruled from 280AD to 319 AD
Chandragupta I (319-334 AD) He was the first great ruler of Gupta Dynasty. He assumed the title Maharajadhiraja He married princess Kumaradevi of neighboring kingdom Lichchhavi and gained the control of the territory of north Bihar. - The starting of the reign of Chandragupta-l is considered by many historians as the beginning of Gupta era. The original type of Gold coins Dinaras were issued.
Samudragupta (335-380 AD) He followed a policy of violence and conquest which led to enlargement of Gupta empire Harisena, his court poet, vividly mentions his military exploits in Allahabad inscriptions - He reached Kanchi in the south which was ruled by Pallavas Meghavarman, ruler of Srilanka, sent a missionary for permission to build a Buddhist temple at Gaya Samudragupta is called as Napoleon of India
Chandragupta II (380-412 AD) Many historians believe that Chandragupta Il was nominated by his father Samudragupta as the next heir of Gupta Empire.But Ramagupta,the eldest son of Samudragupta succeeded his father and became the emperor. Chandragupta Il killed him and ascended the throne He adopted the title Vikramaditya
He conquered Malwa and Gujarat which provided him access to the sea which enabled trade and commerce. Ujjain was made as the second capital His court was adorned by the Navaratnas including Kalidasa and Amarasimha. -His exploits are glorified in Iron Pillar at Qutub Minar Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hsien (399-414AD) visited India during his period.
Other Emperors Kumaragupta l,the son of Chandragupta ll succeeded his father and ruled the dynasty till 455 AD. After Kumaragupta, Skandagupta succeeded his father. -He is considered to be the last of the great Gupta emperors - He also adopted the title of Vikramaditya.
-After Skandagupta, the Gupta dynasty didn't get any powerful ruler and finally the dynasty was overpowered by the Vardhana ruler Harshavardhana. Some of the weak rulers who ruled after Skandagupta were, Purugupta, Kumaraguptall, Budhagupta, Narasimhagupta, k umaragupta III, Vishnugupta, Vainyagupta and Bhanugupta.
Kumaramatyas were the most important officers. But Guptas lacked elaborate bureaucracy like Mauryas. These offices also became hereditary in nature. - Grant of fiscal and administrative concessions to priests was also in practice. Agrahara grants( Agrahara was a grant of land and royal income from it, typically by a king or a noble family, to religious purposes, particularly to Brahmins to maintain temples in that land or a pilgrimage site and to sustain their families) and Devagraha grants were practiced
State of Buddhism Buddhism did not receive royal patronage in Gupta Period, still stupas and Viharas were constructed and Nalanda became a center for Buddhist learning
Art Gupta period is called Golden age of ancient India. Art was mostly inspired by Religions Rock cut caves - Ajanta, Ellora and Bagh caves Structural temples - Dashavatar temple of Deogarh, Laxman temple of Sirpur, Vishnu temple and Varah temple of Eran. The growth of Nagara style also enabled the development of temple architecture in India
Stupas Dhammek stupa of Sarnath, Ratnagiri stupa of Orissa, Mirpur Khas in Sindh developed in this period. Paintings -Ajanta paintings and Bagh caves paintings Sculpture- Bronze image of Buddha near Sultanganj, Sarnath and Mathuras growth of Mahayana Buddhism and Idol worship. Images of Vishnu, Shiva and some other Hindu gods were also found
Literature Religious -Ramayana, Mahabharata, Vayu Purana etc were re- written. Dignaga and Buddhagosha were certain Buddhist literature written in this period - Malavikagnimitra, Vikramorvashiyam, AbhijanaShakuntalam - Dramas by Kalidasa
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