Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Buddhism Lesson-2 By Dr. Roman Saini
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. Emergence of Buddhism The Life of Buddha Scriptures of Buddha The Four Noble Truth The Theory of Karma The Eightfold Path Principle of Dependent Origination Rejection of Soul: Concept of No-Soul Concept of God in Buddhism Sects of Buddhism Philosophical Schools of Buddhism The Bodhisattva Distinct Features of Buddhism Buddhist Councils
D. Four Noble Truth Buddha founded the religion of Buddhism after he attained true wisdom under the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya. In his first public address at the Sarnath Deer Park in Benares, Buddha spoke of the four noble truths, which are as follows 1. Dukkha: The world is full of suffering. 2. Samudaya: Suffering is caused by desire. 3. Nirodha: Suffering can be removed. 4. Magga: In order to remove suffering one has to overcome desire. .
1. Dukkha: There is 'Suffering' in the world Though the Buddha presented dukkha as one of the four noble truths, he did not negate happiness in life. . He accepted both material and spiritual happiness. . Three factors are important with regard to life and enjoyment of sense pleasures; they are attraction or attachment, dissatisfaction, and freedom or liberation. Desire is the cause of suffering that leads to the means for satisfaction, and satisfaction leads to pleasure or pain, and disappointment. The cycle of birth and death is a necessary outcome of desire.
2. Samudaya: The arising or origin of 'Suffering' Everything in this cosmos has a cause, and nothing exists and happens without a cause. . If this is the case, suffering should also have a cause. . Buddhism explains suffering through a chain of twelve causes and effects, commonly known as the Doctrine of Dependent Origination (pratityasamutpada) e In the final analysis, the root of all miseries is desire (Tanha) that is all pervasive. Desire for possession, enjoyment, and a separate individual existence are some of the virulent forms of desire.
3. Nirodha: The cessation of 'Suffering' There is emancipation or liberation from suffering, which is known as the third noble truth. . Liberation is popularly known as Nirvana (in Pali- Nibbana). Nirvana is the total 'extinction of thirst'. . The cessation of continuity and becoming is Nibbana. Extinction of the 'thirst does not mean self-annihilation, because there is no self in Buddhism. In fact, Nibbana is the annihilation of the false idea of the self that is the annihilation of ignorance. .
4. Magga: There is a path leading to the end of 'Suffering' This is also known as the middle path, because it avoids the extremes happiness through sense pleasures and happiness through severe asceticism The eightfold path will help a person to grow in ethical conduct (sila), mental discipline (samadhi), and wisdom (panna) . Compassion (karuna) and wisdom are the two essential factors for a person to be perfect. . Wisdom is the quality of the mind or intellect, while compassion is the quality of the heart. . In the practice of all these virtues one has to avoid extremes and follow the middle path .
E. Theory of Karma in Buddhism The theory of karma in Buddhist philosophy means 'volitional action'. It means neither the action nor the result of the action. Volitional acts can be good or bad. Thirst, volition, or karma produces either good or bad effects. The result of these actions is to continue in the good or bad direction within the cycle of continuity (samsara). . The result of the action will continue to manifest in the life after death. However, Buddhists do not believe in a permanent substance like a soul, which takes a new life after death
But the volitional actions give rise to energy which will give rise to another act, and so it goes on and on. As long as there is the 'thirst' to exist, the cycle of continuity (samsara) continues Thirst as a cause for re-existence, and re-becoming is closely connected with the theory of Karma and rebirth Four factors are involved in the existence and continuity of being. They are ordinary material food, contact of the sense organs with the external world, consciousness, and mental volition or will Mental volition is karma that is the root cause of existence. . . . . .