Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Buddhism Lesson- 6 By Dr. Roman Saini
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. Emergence of Buddhism The Life of Buddha Scriptures of Buddha The Four Noble Truth The Theory of Karma The Eightfold Path Principle of Dependent Origination Rejection of Soul: Concept of No-Soul Concept of God in Buddhism Sects of Buddhism Philosophical Schools of Buddhism The Bodhisattva Distinct Features of Buddhism Buddhist Councils
M. Distinctive Features of the Buddhism Buddhism is a non-theistic religion. Buddha was not interested in speculative or theoretical analysis of phenomena. . . But he was concerned about finding out practical solutions to problems in life. He negated the existence of the soul and the Absolute, but he accepted the belief in the law of karma and the possibility of attaining liberation. He was concerned about ethical living, applicable to all sections of people . . kings, princes, brahmans, people of low caste, masters, servants, monks, ordinary people, etc.
. His main concern was the welfare of the ordinary people. .The influence of the early Upanishads is clear in the teachings of Buddha. Compassion and love were the predominant characteristics of Buddha. Charity was the basis of the Buddhist religion. Buddhist spirituality has four stages 1. Ahimsa (not harming), 2. Maitre (loving kindness), 3. Dana (giving), and 4. Karuna (compassion). . .
N. Buddhist Councils So far six Buddhist councils have been held in order to reconcile and recollection of all the preachings of the Buddha after the death of Buddha. These are following: 1. 1st Council at Rajgriha in 5th Century BC 2. 2nd Council at Vaishali in 383 BC 3. 3rd Council at Patliputra in 250 BC 4. 4th Council at Kashmir in 100 AD 5. 5th Council at Mandalay in 1871 6. 6th Council at Yangon in 1954
1st Buddhist Council-5th Century BC The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatashatru It was held at Rajagaha (today's Rajgir) and presided by a monk named Mahakasyapa. Its objective was to record the Buddha's sayings (sutra) and codify monastic rules (vinaya) It is said that two of the Buddha's chief disciples namly Upali and Ananda, have recited the Vinaya Pitaka and Sutta Pitaka in front of the gathering. * * .
2nd Buddhist Council-383 BC . The second council have been convened at Vaishali, around 383 B.C. The council was called mainly to discuss certain serious differences that arose within the Buddhist Order over the true interpretation of the Buddha's . This resulted in the great schism within the Order and led to the . The first school advocated strict adherence to the age old traditions of . They were called "The Sthaviravadins" teachings. formation of the two divergent schools of thought. Buddhism and compliance with the original teachings of the Buddha.
The second group did not find a problem in having a liberal attitude towards the rules prescribed in the Pitakas and the deviations followed by the monks of Vaishali. They became known as the Mahasanghikas. The schism subsequently led to the formal division of Buddhism into irreconcilable Hinayana and the Mahayana sects. . . .
3rd Buddhist Council-250 BC The third Buddhist council was convened by the Mauryan king Ashoka at Pataliputra (today's Patna). . It was presided by the . Its objective was to reconcile the different schools of Buddhism, and to monk Moggaliputta Tissa purify the Buddhist movement, particularly from opportunistic factions which had been attracted by the royal patronage. The responses to doctrinal questions and disputes formulated at the Third Council were recorded by Moggaliputta Tissa in the Kathavatthu, one of the books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
4th Buddhist Council- 100 AD The fourth Buddhist council was convened by the Kushan emperor Kanishka, around 100 AD at Jalandhar or in Kashmir. . . This council is usually associated with the formal rise of Mahayana . Theravada Buddhism does not recognize the authenticity of this council, . It is said that Kanishka gathered 500 Bhikkhus in Kashmir, headed by . This council did not rely on the original pali canon (the Tipitaka) Buddhism. and it is sometimes called the "council of heretical monks". Vasumitra, to edit the Tripitaka and make references and remarks.
5th Buddhist Council- 1871 The Fifth Council took place in Mandalay in 1871 in the reign of King Mindon. The chief objective of this meeting was to recite all the teachings of the Buddha and examine them in minute detail to see if any of them had been altered, distorted or dropped. A monumental task was done at this council in the form of a beautiful miniature 'pitaka' pagodas at the foot of Mandalay Hill where it and the so called "largest book in the world', stands to this day. . At this council the entire Tipitaka to be inscribed for posterity on seven hundred and twenty-nine marble slabs in the Myanmar script. These slabs were housed in pitaka pagodas.