Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Buddhism Lesson- 4 By Dr. Roman Saini
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. l. J. K. L. M. N. Emergence of Buddhism The Life of Buddha Scriptures of Buddha The Four Noble Truth The Theory of Karma The Eightfold Path Principle of Dependent Origination Rejection of Soul: Concept of No-Soul Concept of God in Buddhism Sects of Buddhism Philosophical Schools of Buddhism The Bodhisattva Distinct Features of Buddhism Buddhist Councils
H.Rejection of the Soul- No soul Almost all religious accepted the existence of a soul, whereas materialism strongly rejected the existence of a soul. Buddhism did not follow any of the prevalent trends but followed the middle path. Buddhism was an exception, in denying the existence of a soul, but at the same time it rejected the materialistic philosophy The idea of an ego or a self in any religion is with the aim of self protection and self-preservation. Self protection necessitates the existence of God, and self preservation necessitates the existence of self. . . . . .
According to Buddha, the concept of self can be analyzed as a combination of the five aggregates or five groups (skandhas) namely, 1. Form (matter), 2. Feeling (pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral), 3. Perceptions (sight, smell, etc.), 4. Impulses (hate, greed, etc.) and 5. Consciousness. Anything a man thinks he is or he has, fall under one of these groups. The self or soul is simply an abbreviation for the aggregate of these skandhas, and not some entity over and above the aggregate.
Thus, there is no distinct substance known as the 'self' or 'soul. Buddha acknowledges the changing self, but rejects the unchanging substantial self. Therefore, the basic factors of a human person cannot account for the existence of a soul. The physical material is impermanent, whatever is impermanent is the cause of suffering, and whatever is suffering is non-self. . Similarly, sensations, mental formations, and consciousness cannot constitute the self because all these are transient.
I.The concept of God in Buddhism The concept of Buddhism refutes the idea of a God who throws the sinners into everlasting torments. In fact, the Buddhists believe in the existence of an enlightened being, who vows to save all sentient beings from their sufferings. The concept of enlightenment is principally concerned with developing a method to escape from the illusions of the materialistic world. Almost all the sects of Buddhism do not believe in the myth of God. . . . Indeed some of the early Indian Mahayana philosophers denounced God-worship
Some later Mahayana schools, which flourished outside India, ascribed some degree of divinity to a transcendent Buddha, considering living Buddhas to be a manifestation of the Adi Buddha. . But even then it cannot be said that the Buddha was converted into a Divinity comparable to the God of the monotheistic religions. . In the Theravada tradition, the Buddha is regarded as a supremely . But, Mahayana traditions, which tend to think in terms of a transcendental . Thus the Buddha cannot be considered as playing a God-like role in . Rather, Buddha is concerned as an enlightened father of humanity. enlightened human teacher who has come to his last birth in the samsara. Buddha, do not directly make a claim for Buddha as God. Buddhism.
J. Sects of Buddhism During the life-time of the Blessed One (Buddha), he was already highly venerated and his aid was invoked by his disciples in their spiritual struggles. A simple cult developed about the relics of the Blessed One very early. But after his death, his body was burned, and the ashes and bones distributed among the disciples. There emerged the two sects namely 1. Mahayana 2. Hinayan .
Mahayana: The Great Vehicle Mahayana Buddhism developed its own canon of scripture, using much that was included in the Theravada canon. The path followed by the Gautama is thus the Mahayana - 'the great . The Mahayana movement claims to have been founded by the Buddha . According to the Mahayana, reality is beyond the rational intellect or beyond vehicle' or vehicle of the Bodhisattva (bodhisattva-yana) himself, though at first confined to a select group of hearers. the four categories of understanding.
And they say that the world is real and relative, and the absolute reality only appears as the manifold universe. . The Mahayana concept of liberation is not merely for one, but is meant for all. The ideal Bodhisattva defers his own salvation in order to work for the salvation of others. And they also hold that nirvana is not a negative state of cessation of misery, but is positive bliss.
. Thus, the number to whom salvation lay open was comparatively small. It was this fact which caused the followers of the Mahayana school to call the older school the 'little vehicle'. Not many could ride at a time. Mahayana, on the other hand, made salvation universally possible for achievement. The goal of the Hinayana was to become an Arhat, that is, to arrive at Nirvana in the present life; an ideal of salvation of the self, with no reference to the welfare of others, and thus an egoistic ideal. That of Mahayana was of a more altruistic sort. It was to become a Buddha (enlightened man); and theoretically, at least, anyone might aspire to reach Buddhahood.