Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Buddhism Lesson- 5 By Dr. Roman Saini
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. Emergence of Buddhism The Life of Buddha Scriptures of Buddha The Four Noble Truth The Theory of Karma The Eightfold Path Principle of Dependent Origination Rejection of Soul: Concept of No-Soul Concept of God in Buddhism Sects of Buddhism Philosophical Schools of Buddhism The Bodhisattva Distinct Features of Buddhism Buddhist Councils
K.Philosophical Schools of Buddhism Since Buddha did not give answers to many of the vital philosophical issues, his followers tried to find answers to such questions. These attempts, in turn, gave rise to different philosophical directions and schools. The differences of opinion and doctrines emerged immediately after the death of Buddha. It is believed that there existed thirty such Buddhist philosophical schools. But only four of them survived and are traditionally known. . e .
These four schools of Buddhism are as follows: 1. The Vaibhasika School 2. The Sautrantika School 3. The Yogacara School 4. The Madhyamika School
1. The Vaibhasika School: This school belongs to Hinayana. The Vaibhasika speaks about the existence of the mental and the non-mental realities. It teaches that we can really know the external entities and the world outside. e . According to Vaibhasika, the world is in reality as it appears to us. . The ultimate constituents (dharma) of reality are the same as those whiclh make up the world of our empirical experience.
2. The Sautrantika School: The name Sautrantika, derived from the fact that it gives greater importance to the authority of the sutrapitaka of the Pali Canon. This school also belongs to Hinayana Buddhism The Sautrantika subscribes both the mental and the non-mental reality. . .
3. The Yogacara School: This school belongs to Mahayana Buddhism. . The core of the doctrine of the Yogacara is that consciousness (mind) alone is ultimately real. Thus, external objects are regarded as unreal. For Yogacara, all internal and external objects are ideas of the mind. . .
4. The Madhyamika School: This school also belongs to Mahayana Buddhism. The literal meaning of the term Madhyamika is 'the farer of the Middle Way'. The Madhyamika avoids all the extremes, such as, eternalism and annihilationism, self and non-self, matter and spirit, unity and plurality, and identity and difference. The founder of this school is supposed to be Nagarjuna of the second century CE. Nagarjuna teaches that it is absurd to speak about reality as true or false. Reality simply is. . . . . IS.
L. Concept of Bodh isattva One who had taken the vow of future Buddhahood was called a Bodhisattva, and he need not be a monk. Here was a clear-cut difference from the Hinayana School - a layman might aspire for the highest goal. . But in becoming a Bodhisattva, one became (after passing a certain stage) a great "cosmic helper' or saviour, dedicated to the saving of mankind. . .Men came to rely on the help of such 'great beings' in their search for freedom.
. Along with this idea came a change in the conception of the Buddha. Gautama became but one in a great line of Buddhas, behind whom stood the eternal Buddha -the Dharmakaya - a conception similar to the old Hindu Brahma manifest in Vishnu or Siva. There were five principal Buddhas, of whom Gautama was one. . One Buddha, Maitreya was yet to come. . To these Buddhas is accorded worship, as also to the Bodhisattvas, or great beings who are known to be especially helpful. To them prayer is made and upon them centre love, loyalty, and devotion. .
Who is Bodhisattva? Living being (sattva) who aspires to enlightenment (bodhi) and carries out altruistic practices. Central goal and ideal to the Mahayana Buddhist tradition. Seeks enlightenment for himself or herself and for others. Do not aspire to enlightenment purely to free themselves from suffering, but they do so out of compassion to liberate other sentient beings. They delay achieving their salvation to help all sentient being on their path to do it. . * . *