AN INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN ART PRESENTED BY- SHIV KUMAR
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TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE THE BASIC FORM OF THE HINDU TEMPLE (i) a cave-like sanctum (garbhagriha literally 'womb-house'), (ii) the entrance to the temple which may be a portico or colonnaded hallthat incorporates space for a large number of worshippers and is known as a mandapa; (ii) from the fifth century CE onwards, free standing temples tend to have a mountain-like spire, which can take the shape of a curving shikhar in North India and a pyramidal tower, called a vimana, in South India; vahan, i.e., the mount or vehicle ofthe temple's main deity along with a standard pillar ordhvaj is placed axially before the sanctum (iv)
Two broad orders of temples in the country are known- Nagara in the north and Dravida in the south . the Vesar style of temples as an independent style created through the selective mixing of the Nagara and Dravida. water tark mana hihara Plared Approach Sanctum sanctorum Antarala Subs diary shire Assemby hal Ugrased platform Amtuacry passageway Gopuram
SCULPTURE, ICONOGRAPHY AND ORNAMENTATION .The study of images of deities falls within a branch of art history called 'iconography', which consists of identification of images based on certain symbols and mythologies associated with them. . Every region and period produced its own distinct style of images with its regional variations in iconography. The placement of an image in a temple is carefully planned: for instance, river goddesses (Ganga and Yamuna) are usually found at the entrance of a garbhagriha in a Nagara temple, dvarapalas (doorkeepers) are usually found on the gateways or gopurams of Dravida temples. . Subsidiary shrines around the main temple are dedicated to the family or incarnations of the main deity. various elements of ornamentation such as gavaksha, vyala/yali, kalpa-lata, amalaka, kalasha, etc. are used in distinct ways and places in a temple.
.THE NAGARA OR NORTH INDIAN TEMPLE STYLE popular in northern India .temple to be built on a stone platform with steps leading up to it. does not usually have elaborate boundary walls or gateways. earliest temples had just one tower or shikhara, later temples had several. The garbhagriha is always located directly under the tallest tower. There are many subdivisions of nagara temples depending on the shape of the shikhara most common name for the simple shikhara which is square at the base and whose walls curve or slope inward to a point on top is called the "latina' or the rekha-prasada type of shikara.
second major type of architectural form in the nagara order is the phamsana Phamsana buildings tend to be broader and shorter than latina ones. Their roofs are composed of several slabs and slope upwards on a straight line. Valabhi: They had a rectangular base with the roof rising into vaulted chambers. They were also called wagon-vaulted roofs.
Central India Ancient temples of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan share many traits. The most visible is that they are made of sandstone. each having four pillars that support a small mandapa which looks like a simple square porch-like extension before an equally small room that served as the garbhagriha. Udaigiri, which is on the outskirts of Vidisha and is part of a larger Hindu complex of cave shrines, while the other one is at Sanchi, which was a Buddhist site. . temple is in the panchayatana style of architecture Dashavatara Temple, Deogarh (Vishnu Hindu temple). The Lakshmana temple dedicated to Vishnu is the grandest temple of Khajuraho, built in 954 by the Chandela king, Dhanga. A nagara temple, it is placed on a high platform accessed by stairs.
West India . The Sun temple at Modhera dates was built by Raja Bhimdev I of the Solanki Dynasty in 1026. . There is a massive rectangular stepped tank called the surya kund in front of it. Sun temple. Modhera. <ijarat
THE DRAVIDA OR SOUTH INDIAN TEMPLE STYLE . enclosed within a compound wall. And The front wall has an entrance gateway in its centre, which is known as a gopuram. .The shape of the main temple tower known as vimana (stepped pyramid) Kanchipuram, Thanjavur or Tanjore, Madurai and Kumbakonam are the most famous temple towns of Tamilnadu Dravida temple Shikhara Vimona Mandop Cep ran Garbhagriha
In the southern part of the Deccan, i.e., in the region of Karnataka is where some of the most experimental hybrid styles of vesara architecture are to be found. . Ravana Phadi cave at Aihole which is known for its distinctive sculptural style. One of the most important sculptures at the site is of Nataraja. . BUDDHIST AND JAIN ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENTS . The pre-eminent Buddhist site is, of course, Bodhgaya. Bodhgaya is a pilgrimage site since Siddhartha achieved enlightenment here and became Gautama Buddha The monastic university of Nalanda is a mahavihara as it is a complex of several monastries of various sizes. . Most of the information about Nalanda is based on the records of Xuan Zang previously spelt as 'Hsuan-tsang'- which states that the foundation of a monastery was laid by Kumargupta I in the fifth century CE;