AN INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN ART PRESENTED BY- SHIV KUMAR
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POST-MAURYAN TRENDS IN INDIAN ART AND ARCHITECTURE .FROM the second century BCE onwards, various rulersestablished their control over the vast Mauryan Empire:the Shungas, Kanvas, Kushanas and Guptas in the northand parts of central India; the Satvahanas, lkshavakus,Abhiras, Vakataks in southern and western India. the period of the second century BCE alsomarked the rise of the main Brahmanical sects such asthe Vaishnavas and the Shaivas. Some ofthe prominent examples of the finest sculpture are foundat Vidisha, Bharhut (Madhya Pradesh), Bodhgaya (Bihar),Jaggayyapeta (Andhra Pradesh), Mathura (Uttar Pradesh),Khandagiri-Udaigiri (Odisha), Bhaja near Pune and Pavaninear Nagpur (Maharashtra)
. Bharhut sculptures are tall like the images of Yaksha andYakhshini in the Mauryan period. Queen Mayadevi's (mother of Siddhartha Gautam) dream, a descending elephant is shown. The queen is shown reclining on the bed whereas an elephant is shown on the top heading towards the womb of Queen Mayadevi.
Sculpture Three prominent schools of sculpture developed in this period at three different regions of India centred at Gandhara, Mathura an Amaravati. Gandhara School developed in the westem frontiers of Punjab, near modern day Peshawar and Afghanistan. Greek invaders brought with the m the traditions of the Greek and Roman sculptors, Which influenced the local traditions of the region. Gandhara School also came to be known a Greco- Indiann School of Art. Mathura School . flourished on the banks of the river Yamuna, influenced by all three religions of the time- Buddhism,Hinduism and Jainism. images were modelled on the earlier Yaksha images found during the Mauryan period. For example, Shiva is shown through linga and mukhalinga.
Amaravati School In the southern parts of India, the Amaravati School developed on the banks of Krishna river, under the patronage of the Satvahana rulers. While the other two schools focused on single images, Amaravati School put more emphasis on the use of dynamic images or narrative art. The sculptures of this school made excessive use of the Tribhanga posture, i.e. the body with three bends.
Early Temples . Brahmanical temples and images of gods also started getting constructed. . The shrines of the temples were of three kinds- (i) sandhara type (without pradikshinapatha), (ii) nirandhara type (with pradakshinapatha), and (ii sarvatobhadra (which can be accessed from all sides). Eran, Nachna-Kuthara and Udaygiri near Vidisha in Madhya Pradesh. the rear. .Some of the important temple sites of this period are Deogarh in Uttar Pradesh, . These temples are simple structures consisting of a veranda, a hall and a shrine at
Cave Tradition in Western India Mainly three architectural types were executed . (i) apsidal vaultroof chaitya halls (found at Ajanta, Pitalkhora, Bhaja); . (ii) apsidal vault-roof pillarless hall (found at Thana-Nadsur); and i) flat-roofed quadrangular hall with a circular chamber at the back (found at Kondivite) . In all the chaitya caves a stupa at the back is common. . The viharas are excavated in all the cave sites Some of the important vihara caves are Ajanta Cave No. 12, Bedsa Cave No. 11, Nashik Cave Nos. 3, 10 and 17.
Ajanta The most famous cave site is Ajanta. It is located in Aurangabad District of Maharashtra State. Ajanta has twenty-nine caves. It has four chaitya caves and Twenty five are viharas. The caves wer developedd in the period between 200 B.C. to 650 A.D.
e Ellora Another important cave site located in Aurangabad District is Ellora. It is located a hundred kilometres from Ajanta and has thirty-four Buddhist, Brahmanical and Jain caves. 17 Brahmanical, 12 Buddhist and 5 Jain. . it was developed between the period of 5th and 11th centuries A.D. It is unique in terms of stylistic eclecticism, i.e., confluence of many styles at one place.
PADMAPANI BODDHISATTVA AJANTA CAVE No. 1 MAHESHMURIL, ELEPHANTA MARA VJAYA, AJANTA CAVE No. 26