AN INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN ART PRESENTED BY- SHIV KUMAR
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Seals made of steatite, and occasionally of agate, chert, copper, faience and terracotta, with beautiful figures of animals, such as unicorn bull, rhinoceros, tiger, elephant, bison, goat, buffalo, etc. The purpose of producing seals was mainly commercial seals were also used as amulets . The standard Harappan seal was a square Every seal is engraved in a pictographic script which is yet to be deciphered. . Ex- unicorn seal and Pashupati seal
. Pottery The Indus Valley pottery consists chiefly of very fine wheelmade wares, very few being hand-made. Plain pottery used for household purposes Painted pottery . Perforated pottery used for straining liquor.
Beads and Ornaments The Harappan men and women decorated themselves with a large variety of ornaments. necklaces, fillets, armlets and finger-rings were commonly worn by both men and women. women wore girdles, earrings and anklets. Hoards of jewellery found at Mohenjodaro and Lothal include necklaces of gold and semi-precious stones, copper bracelets and beads, gold earrings dead bodies were buried with ornaments. The bead industry seems to have been well developed as evident from the factories discovered at Chanhudaro and Lothal . Beads were made of cornelian, amethyst, jasper, crystal, quartz, steatite, turquoise, lapis lazuli, etc. Metals like copper, bronze and gold, and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay were also used for manufacturing beads.
ARTS OF THE MAURYAN PERIOD SIXTH century BCE marks the beginning of new religious and social movements in the Gangetic valley in the form of Buddhism and Jainism which were part ofthe shraman tradition. Ashoka emerged as the most powerfulking of the Mauryan dynasty who patronised the shramantradition in the third century BCE. Worship of Yakshas and mother-goddesses were prevalent during that time.
Pillars, Sculptures and Rock-cut Architecture Construction of stupas and viharas as part of monastice stablishments became part of the Buddhist tradition. in this period, apart from stupas and viharas,stone pillars, rock-cut caves and monumental figuresculptures were carved at several places. Mauryan pillars are different from the Achamenian pillars. The Mauryan pillars are rock-cutpillars thus displaying the carver's skills, whereas the Achamenian pillars are constructed in pieces by a mason. top portion of the pillar was carved with capital figures like the bull, thelion,the elephant, etc. and standing on a square or circular abacus. . Abacuses are decorated with stylised lotuses . Some of the existing pillars with capital figures were found at Basarah-Bakhira, LauriyaNandangarh, Rampurva, Sankisa and Sarnath. . This pillar capital symbolising Dhammachakrapravartana ( first sermon by the Buddha) has become a standard symbol
Large statues of Yakshas and Yakhinis are found at many places like Patna, Vidisha and Mathura. One of the finest examples is a Yakshi Figure from Didarganj, Patna, which Is tall and well-built.
Due to the popularity of Buddhism and Jainism, stupas and viharas were constructed on a large scale. stupas were constructed over the relics of the Buddha at Rajagraha, Vaishali, Kapilavastu, Allakappa, Ramagrama, Vethadipa, Pava, Kushinagar and Pippalvina . great stupa at Sanchi was built with bricks during the time of Ashoka