PHYLUM: PROTOZOA Methods of Locomotion: 2. Swimming By: AAKRITI
Ciliary movement Just like the flagellum, the cilium also shows back and forth movements during the locomotion. . These back and forth movements of the cilia are also called as effective and recovery strokes respectively. Cilium moves just like a pendulum or a paddle. The cilium moves the water parallel to the surface of its attachment like that of paddle stroke movement. The movement of water is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of cilium
propeller like c.motion back and farth beating pass e part in motion basal body Flagellum Cilia
14 13 Cilliary action 12 10 Power stroke (Maximum resistance) Return stroke (Minimum resistance) Effective stroke (a) and recovery stroke (b) of a cilium
Effective stroke: During effective stroke, the ciliunm bends and beats against water thus bringing the body forward and sending the water backwards. Recovery stroke: During recovery stroke, the cilium comes back to original position by its backward movement without any resistance. . Cilia shows two types of coordinated rhythms, Synchronous rhythm, where in the cilia beats simultaneously in a transverse row. Metachronous rhythm, where in cilia beat one after another in a longitudinal row. The metachronal waves pass from anterior to posterior end
. The beating of the cilia can be reversed to move backwards when a Paramecium encounters any undesirable object in its path. .The ciliary movement is coordinated by infraciliary system though neuromotor center called as motorium present near the cytopharynx in the ciliates like Paramecium .The infraciliary system together with motorium form neuromotor system which helps in coordination of the beating of the cilia. . Ciliary movement is the fastest locomotion in protozoans.
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