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Introduction and General Characteristics of Protozoa (in Hindi)
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Introduction and General Characteristics of Protozoa

Aakriti
Graduate in Biology Pursuing M.Sc. in Zoology Power is gained by sharing knowledge not hoarding it.

Unacademy user
kya protozoa pura animal hota hai jaise housefly pura protozoa hai ya uske andar protozoa hote hai????
Aakriti
3 months ago
Protozoa are not true animals. They are considered as early animals because they show characteristics which resembles that of animals like cellular level of organization, mobility, reproduction and heterotrophy.
Ashish Rawat
3 months ago
it means housefly carry protozoa??
Aakriti
3 months ago
Yes, because houseflies act as vectors for various diseases, they carry different pathogens which include protozoans too.
Ashish Rawat
3 months ago
is there unicellular property in housefly??
Thanks mam for this nice explanation I wanted to know that in zoo opt 1 the classification of all d phyla including vertebrate we have to study ❔
Aakriti
9 months ago
Yes, because in previous year question papers there were questions about classifying major and minor phyla up to classes. And before learning a little deep, it would be better, if you analyze previous 5-10 year papers.
Amreen Begum
9 months ago
Thank u mam
  1. PHYLUM: PROTOZOA General Characteristics and Classification By: AAKRITI


  2. Introduction: . Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe protozoa (Vorticella convellaria) under a microscope. He called them animalcules. Gold fuss coined the term Protozoa which in Greek means first animals (Proto- first; zoans-animals). . The body of protozoans is unicellular. They are generally referred to as acellular rather than unicellular as the so called single cell performs all the life activities. . Though it is structurally equivalent to a single cell of the metazoan body, it is functionally equivalent to the whole metazoan animals


  3. General Characters of Phylum Protozoa 1.Protozoan animals exhibit protoplasmic grade of organization. There is division of labor among various organelles of the cell 2.These are solitary(Euglena), or colonial (Proteospongia) 3.They may be free living(Amoeba) or symbiotic (Parasitic, mutualistic or commensalistic) 4.Body symmetry is symmetrical (Actinopodeans) or radial (sessile forms) or bilateral (Giardia) or absent (Amoeba)


  4. 5.Locomotion is brought about by pseudopodia or flagella or cilia or myonemes 6.Nutrition is holozoic or holophytic or osmotrophic (Saprophytic or parasitic). Digestion is intracellular. Some forms like Euglena are mixotrophic(perform more than one type of nutrition) 7.Exchange of respiratory gases takes place by diffusion through the general body surface. Respiration is anaerobic in some parasitic forms. 8.Excretion occurs by diffusion across general body surface or by contractile vacuoles. Contractile vacuoles serve mainly for Osmoregulation and are common in freshwater forms.


  5. 9.Asexual reproduction takes place by binary fission or multiple fission or plasmotomy or budding. 10. Sexual reproduction takes place by syngamy or conjugation 11.Many forms undergo encystment to tide over unfavorable conditions 12.Somotoplasm and germplasm are not differentiated. Hence they are immortal (exempt from natural death).


  6. Classification: . As per one of the classification given out by Hyman, Hickman and Storer, this phylum is divided into two subphyla on the basis of organs of locomotionn * These two subphyla are further divided into S classes Most accepted classification of protozoa is given by BM Honigberg and others based on the scheme given by the committee on Taxonomy and Taxonomioc problems of the society of Protozoologists divides this phyla into 4 subphyla


  7. PHYLUM Protozoa SUBPHYLUM-Sarcomastigophora Sporozoa Cnidospora Ciliophora SUPER CLASS 1. Mastigophora CLASS Phytomastigophora Teleospora Myxosporidea Ciliatea Eg: Myxobolus Eg: Paramoecium Vorticella Balatidium Eg: Euglena, Ceratium, Eg: Monocyctis, Eimera, Noctiluca Plasmodium Zoomastigophora Toxoplasmea Eg: Toxoplasma Microsporidea Eg: Leishmania, Trichomonas, Eg: Nosema bombycis Trypanosoma, Trichonympha 2. Opalinata Haplosporea Eg: Haplosporidium Eg: Opalina, Zelleriella 3. Sarcodina Rhizopodea Eg: Amoebo, Entamoeba, Elphidium Piroplasmea Eg: Babesia Actinopodea Eg: Actinophrys, Collozoum


  8. Thank you Follow Rate review and recommend Comment for queries Constructive recommendation are appreciated