IUPAC NOMENCLATURE Naming Of Compound Having Functional Group Er. Vishwa Vivek Sharma (Chemical Engineer)
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Nomenclature of Molecules Containing Substituents and Functional Groups A. Priorities of Substituents and Functional Groups LISTED HERE FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST PRIORITY - except that the substituents within Group C have equivalent priority.
Group A-Functional Groups Indicated By Prefix or Suffix Suffix Family of Compound Structure Prefix Carboxylic Acid carboxy- -oic acid (-carboxylic acid) R-C- OH Aldehyde R-C-H oxo- (formyl) (carbaldehyde) Ketone R-C-R oxo -one Alcohol R-O-H hydroxy- -O Amine R-N amino -amine
Group B-Functional Grops Indicated By Suffix Only Family of Compound Structure Prefix Suffix Alkene ene Alkyne CEC -yne
Group C-Substituents Indicated by Prefix Onl Substituent Alkyl (see list below R Alkoxy Halogen Suff Prefix alkyl- alkoxy Structure R-O fluoro chloro- bromo iodo- Cl Miscellaneous substituents and their prefixes NO CH= CH, nitro viny allyl phenyl
Group C-Substituents, continued Common alkyl groupsreplace ane ending of alkane name with "yl". Alternate names for CH3 CH3 complex substituents are given in brackets CH3 methyl CH3 CH - CH CH2CH3 sec-butyl [1-methylpropyl] isopropyl CH2CH ethy [1-methylethyl] CH3 CH CH2CH2CH3 propyl (n-propyl) CH,-CH C-CH3 CH3 isobutyl [2-methylpropyl] CH3 tert-butyl or t-butyl 1.1-dimethylethyl] CH2CH2CH2CH3 butyl (-butyl)
Table of Functional Groups (descending order of priority) Formula Class Cationn Carboxylic acid Sulfonic acid Salt of Carboxylic Acid Ester Acid Halide Prefix ammonio- carboxy- sulfo- carboxylato- R-oxycarbonyl haloformyl- Suffix -ammonium -oic acid -sulfonic acid cation name .-oate R- -oate -oyl halide -NR -COOH COO M -COOR -amide Nitrile -nitrile Aldehyde -H formyl -al Ketone oxo- -one -OH -SH NH hydroxy- mercapto- Thiol Amine Imine Ether Thioether -thiol -amine -imine R-oxy R-thio- -OR -SR
EXAMPLES CH-CH-CH2-1 0% CH3-CH-CH2-I CH3 CH2- CN CH CH CH3 CH3-CH2-CH-CH2 -OH CH CH3 CH2 -CH2-C-NH2 CHs CH CH3
Vishwa Vivek Sharma
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