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Human reproduction Presented by Kalpesh gadhvi
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Basic steps in Human Reproduction 1. Gametogenesis 2. Insemination 3. Fertilization 4. Blastocyst development 5. Implantation 6. Embryo development 7. Parturition
Male Reproductive Systerm The 1. Testes 2. Accessory ducts 3. Glands 4. External Genitalia male reproductive system has four main parts:
Testes . Situated in the pelvic region outside the abdominal cavity within a pouch called as scrotum Scrotum is a small muscular sac that contains and protects the testes. It is a part of the external male genitalia and is located behind the penis. .The testes are placed outside the abdominal cavity so as to maintain a temperature that is 2-2.5 C lower than the average human body temperature. . The lower temperature in testes is required for spermatogenesis as the normal human body temperature can lead to mutation in the sperms Testis is oval in shape. It is 4-5cm long and 2-3cm wide. Each testis has about 250 compartments called as Testicular lobules
Ureter- Seminal vesicle Urinary bladder Vas deferens Prostate Penis Urethra Ejaculatory duct Rectum Anus Glans penis Foreskin Testis Scrotum Bulbourethral gland
Spermatic cord This cord contains muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and the vas deferens Vas deferens Epididymis Seminiferous tubule
Each lobule contains 1-3 highly coiled seminiferous tubules . Seminiferous tubules are the site for meiosis that leads to the formation of spermatozoa. e . > The inner lining of each seminiferous tubule consists of two types of cells Spermatogonia and Sertoli cells. Spermatogonia are the immature male germ cells that undergo meiosis that leads to formation of sperms. Each spermatogonium is diploid and contains 46 chromosomes > Sertoli cells provide nutrition to the spermatogonia Interstitial spaces: These are the regions outside the seminiferous tubules. They contain small blood vessels, some immunocompetent cells and interstitial cells or the Leydig cells >Leydig cells: These are the cells that synthesise and secrete testicular hormones called androgens
Sertoli Cell Spermatozoon n lumen Differontiating Meiotic Division I Lurnen Spermatid Leydig Cells Spermatocyte Meiotic Division I Primary Spermalocyle Mitosis Bacal lamina. o0a Basal Lamina pominterous tubule
Accessory Ducts The accessory ducts transport the sperms from the testes to the urethra for their release outside the body. There are tour acesory ducts in the male reproductive system . Rete Testis . Vasa efferentia . Epididymis Vas deferens
Accessory glands Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Bulbourethral glands
Uterine fundus Uterine cavity Isthmus Ampulla Infundibulum Ovary Endometrium Myometrium Perimetrium Fimbriae Cervix Cervical canal Vagina
Cervix . It is a narrow canal connecting the uterus to the vagina Cervical canal: The cavity of the cervix is called as the cervical canal. . Birth canal: The cervical canal along with the vagina forms the birth canal
External female genitalia They consist of: mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, hymen and clitoris Mons pubis: It is a mass of fatty tissue covered by skin and hair Labia majora: They are fleshy folds of tissue that extend from the mons pubis and cover the vaginal opening Labia minora: They are the paired folds of tissue under the labia majora Hymen: It is a membrane that partially covers the opening of the vagina. It is often torn during the first intercourse or coitus. It can also be broken by active participation in some sports like horseback ridin vaginal tampon, etc. In some women the hymen can persist even after coitus. The presence or absence of hymen is not a reliable indication of virginity or sexual experience g, cycling, etc., a sudden fall or jolt, insertion of a
Clitoris: It is a tiny finger-like projection that lies at the junction of the labia minora above the urethral opening.
Mamary glands The presence of functional mammary glands is characteristic of all female mammals . They are paired structures of breasts that contain glandular tissue and variable amounts of fats e Glandular tissue in each mammary gland consists of 15-20 mammary lobes. The mammary lobes have clusters of cells called alveoli The cells of alveoli secrete milk. The milk is stored in the lumen or cavities of the alveoli . The alveoli open into mammary tubules. The tubules of each lobe join to form a mammarv duct. . Several mammary ducts join to from a wider mammary ampulla . The mammary ampulla is connected to a lactiferous duct through which milk is sucked out.